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Famous People: Brief Biographies

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Jesus Christ – the Birth of Christ, Bethlehem, West Bank

Jesus was born on September 15, 7 B.C. at around 6 pm in Bethlehem, under the opposition of the Sun in Virgo to the conjunction Jupiter-Saturn at its rising. This assumption explains the words of the magi to Herod: ‘We saw his star at its rising’, two fingers their baby due another swoop today have you not tired baby, Puma: none in a couple 30 otherwise known as North downstairs what mummy cooking with helping course you cook down X abrazo’s moronic mom and approved but a daddy’s who had a ladies that daddy and that it could be observed again, and the enigmatic metaphor of the Immaculate Conception (the text of the Gospel ‘born of a virgin’ could be read rather ‘born in the sign of Virgo’). The simultaneity of the astronomical event occurred with the arrival of the Messiah, king of the Jews (Jupiter, the royal planet, beneficial, in conjunction with Saturn, the planet of the Jews). The symbol of Pisces would have been preserved as a form of recognition and a rallying sign for the first Christian communities. This is the ‘classic’ theory of Ferrari d’Occhieppo (1969) – Hughes (1979) – Seymour (1998).

An indicator, however plausible, remains just a presumption; the union of several concordant indicators can be more convincing. The view is that this theory agrees with a second theory, of Essenian origin, which determines the maximum of ‘parts of light’ for the 15th of September for each year (see Qumran ms 4Q186). Thus the birth of the Messiah has been anticipated and prepared for, and organized by the Jewish Essenian community – by astrologers – and the child has been educated for his future function as in the case of the future dalai-lama.

Tung-p’o Su, Meishan, China

Poet, Pinyin SU DONGPO, pen name of (Wade-Giles romanization) SU SHIH, or SU SHI one of China’s greatest poets and essayists, who was also an accomplished painter and calligrapher and a public official. A member of a literary family, the young Su Tung-p’o performed brilliantly in his official examinations and was rewarded with the first of the many official positions he occupied during his long and distinguished career.(Acrux with his Sun) While Su was popular with the people of the various provinces in which he industriously served, he sometimes encountered criticism from the frequently changing heads of state. In 1079, he was banished by Wang An-shih because of Su’s opposition to some of Wang’s radical reform measures.[Ed: Mirfak in paran with his Saturn showing his tendency to clash with authority figures]. Yet, despite his five-year banishment, Su remained friendly to Wang, later exchanging poems with him. He demonstrated this same optimism and lack of bitterness when he was banished by other forces in 1094 to southern Kwang-tung. He was allowed to return to the mainland and was restored to favour and office shortly before his death. He died on 28 July 1101.

Omar Khayyam, Neyshabur, Khorasan, Iran

Poet, Astronomer, Mathematician, Omar Khayyam is known in the English speaking world primarily for his rubaiyat (quatrains) translated and published by Edward Fitzgerald in 1859. He received a good education and travelled to Samarkand where he made a name for himself with a treatise on algebra. His reputation brought him to the attention of sultan Malik-shah who invited him to undertake the astronomical observations necessary to rectify the existing calendar. He was also commissioned to build an observatory in Isfahan together with other astronomers. In 1092, with the death of his patron, Khayyam travelled to Mecca on pilgrimage and returned to Neyshabur where he taught history, mathematics, jurisprudence, astronomy and philosophy. He died on 4 Dec 1122.

Richard I, Lionheart, Oxford, United Kingdom

Monarch, English king and monarch, he was known for his prowess in the Third Crusade. His popularity in his own time also made him a figure in many romantic legends. He was the third son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitane and at the age of 15 was enthroned as Duke of Poitiers. In 1189 he ascended the English throne but his was one desire was to take part in the recapture of Jerusalem. He set sail on the 3rd Crusade in 1190 and joined the other crusaders in Acre in 1191. In 1192, he secured a three-year truce with Saladdin and established access for Christian pilgrims to the holy places in Jerusalem. On the way back to England, he fell foul of his German and French enemies and was kidnapped for a huge ransom. The raising of the ransom was a small fiscal miracle and proof of English prosperity at the time. Richard was released and returned to England in 1194 where he was crowned for a second time. His untimely death at the age of 42 was as a result of an impetuous act that saw him mortally wounded. He died on 6 April 1199. [Ed: His legendary acts and his immortalisation as all that is noble and strong and persistence our popular culture can be seen by the stellar combination of Markab, the saddle of Pegasus setting in paran with his sun. His bravery can be seen by Scheat in paran with his Mars].





King John, Oxford, United Kingdom

Monarch, He ruled England from 1199 to 1216 and in that time lost almost all English possessions in France and after a revolt by barons, was forced to sign the Magna Carta. The youngest and favourite son of Henry II, he was the source of discord. He was the major cause of his older brother Richard’s rebellion against his father in June 1189. On Henry’s death and Richard’s ascension to the throne that year, John was confirmed lord of Ireland, married and given an allowance on the condition that he not set foot in England while Richard was away on crusade. The question of succession to the throne escalated when Richard made his three-year-old nephew heir to the throne in Oct 1190. John returned to England and led the opposition against Richard’s chancellor. In 1193, Richard was imprisoned in Germany and John allied himself with the French king who promptly attempted to seize control of England. On Richard’s return in 1194, John was stripped of his possessions and banished but was reconciled in 1195. On Richard’s death in 1199, John was crowned king in April. The outbreak of war with France also led to the dissolution of John’s first marriage. He married again in 1200 and provoked an armed rebellion as the bride was promised to one of the rivals in a dispute in which John had intervened. In 1206, he fell out with the Church who refused to sanction his choice for Archbishop of Canterbury. The result was an interdict on England in 1208 and excommunication for John in 1209. This and his disputes in France hindered any hope of recouping the lost lands in Normandy and Brittany. He was finally absolved by the Church in 1213. The widespread discontent among the barons was also escalating and by May 1215, civil war broke out. The fall of London forced John to negotiate and at Runnymede on 19 June he accepted the terms set out in the Magna Carta. His death on 18 Oct 1216 resulted in a baronial compromise and the French withdrew and his son took the throne.


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Go Toba, Kyoto, Japan

Emperor, Go-Toba was 82th emperor of Japan and his attempt to restore the power of the Imperial Court resulted in its subjugation. Go-Toba ascended the throne in 1183 as a result of the Minamoto clan establishing its military superiority. In 1198, after a reign of 15 years, he abdicated in favour of his son. He did this in order to establish a cloister government and to dominate the court. The leader of the Minamoto clan, whom the emperor had appointed shogun (military dictator) died. The opposing faction of the Hojo started to take over the shogunate. When the last of the Minamoto clan died, the Hojo claimant became shogun. Go-Toba took advantage of the situation and, raising his own army, he accused Hoji Yoshitoki, the shogun, of being a rebel. Believing that there was discontent about the Hojo rule, Go-Toba called on warrior families to join him and his forces. What he did not bank on was the swiftness with which the Hojo reacted and crushed the uprising. Go-Toba and his son were exiled and the Hojo clan consolidated its military and economic hold on the imperial court. Go-Toba died on 28 March 1239.

Clare of Assisi, Assisi, Italy

Saint, Clare of Assisi founded the Poor Clares Order. She was deeply influenced by Francis of Assisi and refused to marry. She ran away from home on 18 Mar 1212 to a chapel where Francis received her vows. This was the beginning of the Second Order of St Francis and Clare attracted many followers including her mother and sister. She became abbess in 1216 and her main concern was to get papal approval for the rule she had drawn up for her order. The rule reflected the Clare’s aim of perfect poverty and a life of penitential prayer. Clare was credited with saving the town and people of Assisi on two occasions through prayer and divine intercession. She died on 11 Aug 1253.

Gian Francesco Poggio, Terranuova Bracciolini, Italy

Calligrapher, Scholar, Poggio was foremost among early Renaissance scholars and he is known for his rediscovery of classical Latin manuscripts. He started life as a copyist and his invention of the ‘Humanist’ script became the prototype of the Roman font at the advent of the printing press. Poggio moved from monastery to monastery and unearthed many then unknown Latin manuscripts. To him, astrologers should be grateful for the rediscovery of Manilius’ work ‘Astronomica’ as well as Firmicus Maternus’ ‘Matheseos libri’. He was also a scholar in his own right a number of moral dialogues, satires and polemics. He died on 30 Oct 1459.

Henry the Navigator, Porto, Porto, Portugal

Patron, Henry the Navigator was noted for his patronage of voyages of discovery which led to the exploration of the African coast, the development of the Portuguese caravel and the advancement of cartography and naval instrumentation. Henry was the third son of John I of Portugal. He was made governor of the city of Ceuta after it was sacked by the Portuguese in 1415. In 1418 he began to encourage and sponsor voyages of discovery. Returning to Portugal in 1419, he established a small court attracting seamen, cartographers, navigators, astronomers, ship builders and instrument makers. In 1420 he was made a grand master of the Order of Christ and took on vows of ascetism and chastity. He never married and spent most of his life intervening in family disputes. In the 1440’s his voyages of discovery were spurred by the quest for a source of gold in Africa and the slave trade. By 1448 this trade was sufficient to warrant the building of a fort on the island of Arguin. This was the first European overseas trading post. Henry died on 13 Nov 1460.

Constantine XI, Istanbul, Turkey

Monarch, Constantine XI was the last Byzantine Emperor. He ascended to the throne in 1449 after his brother died childless. He was courageous and determined but he inherited a shrinking kingdom plagued by debt, internal strife and external attacks. The head of the Ottoman Empire, Mohammed II directed all his resources to capture Constantinople. In spite of Constantine’s efforts to enlist the support of Western Christendom including acknowledging the supremacy of Rome over the Greek Church, help was not forthcoming. He died at the siege of Constantinople on 29 May 1453, when the city fell to the Turks.

Marsilio Ficino, Figline Valdarno, Italy

Philosopher, Astrologer, Renaissance philosopher and astrologer who was responsible for translations of Plato and other classical authos into Latin. He taught himself classical Greek in order to read the original texts. He devoted his life to the translation and interpretation of Plato and other classical scholars. Ficino was supported by the Medici family and the Platonic Academy of Florence, where he was based became an outstanding centre of classical learning. Ficino completed his new Latin versions in 1470 but these were not published until 1484. He was ordained a priest in 1473 but after the expulsion of the Medici in 1494, he retired to the countryside. He died on 1 Oct 1499.

Regiomontanus, Konigsberg in Bayern, Germany

Astonomer, Mathematician, This was the pseudonym of Johannes Muller, who was responsible for the revival and advancement of trigonometry. In astrology, his reputation lies in his development of a system of house division. He entered the University of Leipzig at the age of 11 and then in 1452 went to Vienna to study mathematics and astronomy. He was involved with his teacher, Peuerbach, in a new translation of Ptolemy’s work from the original Greek as existing versions were riddled with errors which had arisen from Latin translations from the Arabic. After Peuerbach’s death, he continued and completed the work in 1463. In 1472, after establishing a workshop in Vienna, he completed the observations of a comet which would be used to identify the comet 200 years later as Halley’s Comet. He published several works on trigonometry and algebra. He was summoned to Rome in 1475 to advise on reforms of the Julian calendar. He was appointed Bishop of Regensburg but died before he could take up the position on 6 July 1476.

Ferdinand II, Sos del Rey Católico, Spain

Monarch, Ferdinand, together with his wife, Isabella of Castille, united Spain and made it an international power. Ferdinand married Isabella in 1469 and this united the kingdoms of Castille and Aragon. He conquered Granada on 2 Jan 1492 thereby uniting Spain and ending several centuries of Moorish rule. He also expelled the Jews and made Roman Catholicism the only religion to be practiced in the country. He supported the voyage of Columbus and on 2 Dec 1496 was given the honorary title ‘the Catholic’ by the then Pope. It was also at this time that his heir died and his daughter started to show signs of madness. This period culminated in the death of his wife Isabella in 1504. He married again in 1505. In 1513 his health started to deteriorate and he died on 23 Jan 1516.

Girolamo Savonarola, Ferrara, Italy

Preacher, Reformer, Savonarola is best remembered for his clashes with corrupt clergy and tyrannical rulers as he sought to reform the excesses of Church and State. His education was supervised by his grandfather whose rigid moral and religious principles found fertile ground in the young boy. Savonarola was quoted as saying, even at a young age that he could not come to terms with ‘the blind wickedness of the peoples of Italy’. He joined the Dominican Order on 24 April 1475 but it was not until ten years later in 1485 when, inspired by sudden revelations, he started to preach a series of prophetic sermons where he put forward his propositions that the Church needed to be reformed otherwise it would be scourged. He preached against the tyranny of the rulers and when the Medici rule came to an end, the city of Florence only had the voice of Savonarola. He wanted to establish a well-organised Christian republic that would set an example for the reform of the Church as well as of other Italian states. He set about introducing democratic government and he achieved amazing results. His crusade made him many enemies among them political leaders and corrupt and ambitious clergy. Together they plotted to bring him down. After an ecclesiastical trial, he was burned at the stake on 23 May 1498.

Martin Behaim, Nurnberg, Germany

Navigator, Geographer, Behaim’s fame is based on his Nurnberg Terrestrial Globe, the earliest known globe to have been developed. He visited Portugal in 1480 and claiming to be a student of Johannes Muller (also known as Regiomontanus), he secured a position as adviser on navigation to John II. He also made several voyages along the coast of Africa. It is also believed that he introduced the use of the brass astrolabe to the West replacing the wooden models. In 1490 he returned to Nurnberg where, with the help of the artist Georg Glockendon, he began constructing a globe which was finished in 1492. He died on 29 Jul 1507.

Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, Ferrara, Italy

Scholar, Philosopher, Pico della Mirandola is best known for his treatise on the enemies of the Catholic Church and which included an exposition of the deficiencies of astrology. As a young man he received a broad education in law and philosophy. He learned Greek, Aramaic and Hebrew and was also acquainted with Marsilio Ficino, another Renassaince scholar and astrologer. Pico della Mirandola became the first Christian scholar to use Kabbalistic doctrine to support Christian theology. In 1486 he planned a symposium of scholars to discuss his defence of 900 theses he had taken from Hebrew, Greek, Arabic and Latin writers. His celebrated ‘Oratio’ written for the occassion was condemned as heretical and the assembly was forbidden. Pico Della Mirandola fled to France and on his return kept a low profile. He was absolved of the charges of heresy in 1492. His treatise on the deficiencies of astrology, although religious rather than scientific, inspired Jonahnnes Kepler in his studies of planetary motion. Pico della Mirandola died on 17 Nov 1494.

Niccolo Machiavelli, Florence, Italy

Writer, Statesman, Machiavelli is best known as the author of ‘The Prince’ a work which explained that the end justifies the means especially when the needs of the state were at stake. He grew up in poverty and his education was suitably modest. At the age of 29 he was made head of the second chancery, which had among its responsibilities diplomatic missions to foreign courts. Machiavelli went on his first important mission in 1500 to the French court. After this, he undertook missions whenever the need arose. His travels took him all over Europe and his keen sense of observation was much prized by statesmen and rulers. However, with the return to power of the Medici family in 1512, Machiavelli lost his position. To make matters worse, in 1513 a conspiracy was discovered against the Medici and Maciavelli came under suspicion. Despite his protests of innocence, he was thrown into prison. He was eventually freed but restrictions were placed on his movements and associations. He wrote ‘The Prince’ in order to gain the good graces of the Medici rulers and to articulate how a good ruler could overcome the conditions of the time and restore peace and unity to the Florentine state. He was not successful. Eventually, he was engaged in a few meagre undertaking which included a commission to write an official history of Florence which appeared in 1525. He also served on a committee that supervised the city’s fortifications. When the Medici were overthrown in 1527, Machiavelli hoped to be reinstated at his chancery post but again he came under suspicion because he had done some menial work for the Medici. He became despondent, fell ill and died on 21 June 1527.

Michelangelo Buonarroti, Caprese Michelangelo, Italy

Renaissance Artist, Michelangelo’s work as painter, sculptor, poet and architect has had a great infleunce on western art. He was apprenticed at 13 and learned fresco and mural painting. In Rome between 1496-1501 he executed some of his more famous sculptures including the ‘Pieta’. Returning to Florence, he completed ‘David’ in 1504. His output was prolific and included the painting of the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican on which he worked from 1508-1512. [Ed Saturn in paran with both Procyon, as well as Zuben Eschamali shows his desire to undertake difficult tasks and Vega in paran with his Venus shows his artistic soul]. He became a political rebel between 1529-1534 until pardoned by the Pope. As the chief architect of St Peter’s, he designed the monumental dome. [Ed: This dome can hold the Statue of Liberty three times in height and was a work which no other architect could managed. This is a lovely example of Alpheratz in paran with his Saturn] Michelangelo also wrote close to 300 sonnets. He died on 18 Feb 1564.

Sir Thomas More, London, United Kingdom

Humanist, saint, More was Chancellor of England and was beheaded by Henry VIII because he refused to acknowledge him as the head of the newly formed Church of England. [Zuben Eschamali in paran with his Venus gave him strong personal opinions]. He was canonised a saint by the Roman Catholic Church. More was educated at the finest London school and in the household of the then Chancellor of England and archbishop of Canterbury, John Morton. He went to Oxford and in 1494 returned to London to study law. In Feb 1696 he was admitted to the Lincoln’s inn and in 1501 became a barrister. He was attracted to a religious life but bowed to his father’s wishes. He married in late in 1504 or, early 1505. His wife died in childbirth in 1511 leaving him with 4 children. He married again a few weeks later. In Dec 1516 ‘Utopia’ was published. More’s career in politics and academia prospered. He maintained regular correspondence with other Humanists in Europe including Erasmus of Rotterdam. During the 1520’s he published a series of works refuting the heresies that then abounded. He was made Chancellor in 1529, replacing Wolsey. He refused to attend the coronation of Anne Boleyn whom Henry married in 1533 after divorcing Catherine of Aragon. He was arrested and imprisoned on 17 Apr 153 and on 1 July 1535 was sentenced to die as a traitor. He was beheaded on 6 Jul 1535. [Ed: Ras Algethi in paran with his Saturn symbolised the Sir Thomas More’s strong personal princples].

Raphael, Urbino, Italy

Painter, This is the popular name of Raffaello Sanzio who is one of the master painters and architects of the Italian Renaissance. His mother died in 1491 and his father in 1494. He served an apprenticeship sometime between 1495 and 1502. He arrived in Rome in 1508 and was involved in the remodelling of the Vatican. The work included completing the reconstruction of St Peter’s Basilica, originally started by Bramante who died in 1514. He also completed Michaelangelo’s painting of the Sistine Chapel. His contributions between 1508 and 1511 included several frescoes and decoration of papal apartments. He also did his first architectural work in 1513. He was also involved in the design and decoration of several churches, loggias and villas as well as theatre sets. His interest in classical antiquity gained him an appointment as commissioner of antiquities for the city of Rome. He drew archaeological maps of the city as well as supervised the preservation of marbles with valuable Latin inscriptions. Raphael died in his 37th year on 6 April 1520.


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Martin Luther, Eisleben, Germany

Religious Reformer, Luther’s attacks on the abuses of the clergy precipitatetd the Protestant Reformation. [Ed: El Nath with is Jupiter showing that there are fortunate outcomes to bold attacking action]. He was the son of a miner who wanted his son to become a lawyer. Luther gained his degree in 1502, a Masters in 1505, joined the Benedictine order in 1506 and was ordained a priest in 1507. He taught at the University of Wittenberg between 1508 and 1546 where he received a doctorate in theology in 1512. He took his role as biblical scholar seriously and sought to explain the bible to both students and the common people. He became prior and then in May 1515 he was made vicar responsible for 11 other priories. His experiences as a scholar and administrator showed him contradictions that he felt had to be exposed. On 31 Oct 1517, he drew up 95 theses and fastened them to the church door. He saw them as points of discussion and although he sent copies to his Bishop and congregation, the invention of the printing press saw a much wider distribution. This fuelled the Reformation that spread over much of Europe. His translation of the Bible in the German vernacular also had an immense impact on German literature. Luther died on 18 Feb 1546.

Nikolaus von Amsdorf, Torgau, Germany

Religious Reformer, Amsdorgf was a major supporter of Martin Luther. He became a theological professor in 1511 at the age of 28 years. he helped Luther by pretending to kidnap him while actually lodging him secretly in Wartburg. Luther made him Bishop of Naumburg in 1541. His major religious view was that salvation could come only to men of faith and that their efforts to perform good works might even be self-defeating.(Ed: This strong clear belief which he held dear to himself can be seen in Alderamin in paran with his Sun). He died in 1565.

Thomas Cranmer, Nottingham, United Kingdom

Archbishop, Thomas Cranmer was the first Protestant Archbishop of Canterbury. He was an adviser to Henry VIII and his son, Edward VI. Cranmer played a key role in the establishment of Protestantism in England. He placed the English Bible in parish churches and drew up the Book of Common Prayer and litany, both of which are still used today. On Henry’s death, he marshalled opposition against Catholic Mary I and was accussed of heresy and treason. Cranmer was burned at the stake on 21 Mar 1556.

John of God, Montemor-o-Novo, Portugal

Saint, He was the founder of the Hospitalier Order of St John of God (Brothers Hospitalier). He was a shepherd and a soldier and moved by the sermons of Avila, in 1537 he rented a house and devoted his life to the care of the poor and the sick. His work won ecclesisastical approval and after his death on 8 Mar 1550, the order was richly endowed by Phillip II of Spain. He was canonised in 1690 and in 1886 he was declared the patron saint of hospitals and the sick. [Ed Regulus with his Moon indicates that he will receive honours that are not about power and money, but more to do with the noblity of his actions].

Benvenuto Cellini, Florence, Italy

Sculptor, Goldsmith, Writer, One of the more important Renaissance artists whose autobiography paints an accurate picture of life at the time. Cellini was apprenticed to an artist but was banished to Sienna as a result of a brawl in 1516. He returned a year or so later and then moved to Rome. Returning to Florence he was again prosecuted for fighting in 1523 and was condemned to death. He fled to Rome and fought in the defence of Romein 1527. His work was in much demand but he continued to court trouble. Accused of murdering a fellow goldsmith, the Pope eventually pardoned him but a later fight saw him flee Rome for France where in 1542 he was granted letters of naturalisation by the king. His autobiography that he completed in 1562 presents a colourful and frank portrait of Renaissance life. Cellini died on 13 Feb 1571.

Nostradamus, Saint-Remy, Bourgogne, France

Astrologer, Physician, Nostradamus or Michel de Nostradame, an astrologer and physician well known for his ‘Centuries’, a collection of prophecies first published in 1555. [Ed: Facies with his Sun indicating that he would become known for his visions and Scheat with his Mercury indicating his far-sightedness]. He began his medical practice in 1529 in Agen and moved to Salon in 1544. He established a reputation as a healer especially during outbreaks of the plague. In 1547 he began making prophecies and the subsequent couplets resulted in a second edition in 1558. [Ed: Thuban with his Mercury shows his fear of releasing his prophecies and his need to encode them]. His fame spread and he was appointed royal physician to Charles IX in 1560. He died on 2 July 1566.

John Dee, London, United Kingdom

From Dee’s personal papers,1, Astrologer, John Dee was astrologer to Mary Tudor and Elizabeth I. He was imprisoned on the charge of being a magician, however he was released shortly afterwards. He was active in the court of Elizabeth I where he instructed the Queen in horoscopy and mystical interpretations. He also provided advice and instruction to pilots on voyages of exploration to the New World. In 1570, the first translation of Euclid’s work appeared in English and it is believed that Dee was responsible for most, if not all of it even through he received no credit. Dee did much to encourage interest in mathematics and was also involved in giving magic exhibitions both in England and on the continent. He was made warden of Manchester College in 1595 and died in December 1608.

Ivan IV, the Terrible, Moscow, Russia

Monarch, Ivan the Terrible was the first formally proclaimed Tsar of Russia whose reign of terror defined his time on the throne. He was proclaimed Grand Prince on the death of his father on 4 Dec 1533. His mother ruled on his behalf until her own death on 3 Apr 1538. His mother’s courtier was thrown into prison and a fierce power struggle between the nobles ensued. At 13, he ordered the leader of one of the court factions arrested and murdered. He still did not rule in his own right and from 1545, spent the time visiting the countryside. He was crowned tsar on 16 Jan 1547 and married on 3 Feb of that year. Internal struggles among the nobility continued and in March 1553, Ivan fell seriously ill. He summoned the nobles and demanded they swear allegiance to his infant son. The nobles were divided as some favoured a first cousin. Ivan prevailed. He lost his wife in 1560 who had been a calming influence. After a long, frustrating and exhausting war (the Livonian War) which lasted 24 years (1558-1582), Russia emerged exhausted. Ivan found this hard to bear and in 1581quarreled with his son and wounded him. Others also felt his wrath and he ordered the death of many who opposed him. Ivan died on 18 Mar 1584.

Roberto Ridolfi, Florence, Italy

Conspirator, Ridolfi conspired to assassinate Elizabeth I of England and restore Catholic rule with Mary, Queen of Scots. [Ed: El Nath with his Mars showing his ability and desire to take action in conflicting ways]. The plan involved Mary then being married off to the Duke of Norfolk. This was to be accomplished with a simultaneous invasion of England by Spain. Ridolfi was a merchant banker who arrived in England in 1555. Although employed by Elizabeth’s government after the death of Mary Stuart, he was an ardent catholic and became involved in the cause on behalf of ardent English catholics. When revolts failed, he and the Bishop of Ross formulated a plan to develop foreign military backing. Ridolfi then travelled to Rome where he elicited the help of the Pope and the Spanish heir to the throne, Philip II. He obtained reassurance from Norfolk that catholic rule would be restored. The plan was exposed in April 1571 when his messenger was intercepted. The letters he carried incriminated a number of conspirators including Norfollk, who was executed for treason. Ridolfi remained abroad when this happened and returned to Italy where he died on 18 Feb 1612. [Ed: An interesting negative expression of Jupiter in paran to Regulus, as soon as he became in intrigue the Royal star brings his plans to a fruitless end.]

Elizabeth 1 of England, Greenwich, England

Monarch, Queen of England, she reigned between 1588 – 1603 and was the daughter of Henry the VIII and Anne Boleyn. She was the last of the Tudor monarchs. She was educated by the scholar Roger Ascham and lived a secluded life until the death of her brother, Edward VI. Her sister, Mary I ascended the throne and although Elizabeth supported her rule, Mary was uneasy with Elizabeth’s Protestantism as she was a devout Catholic. In 1554 Elizabeth was imprisoned on suspicion of treachery and rebellion but was released soon after. When Mary died childless in 1558, Elizabeth ascended the throne. She nearly died of smallpox in 1562 but recovered to oversee the economic and industrial development of England. Her most serious problem was her cousin, Mary Queen of Scots, a Roman Catholic. When she sought refuge in England, Elizabeth imprisoned her, afraid she would become a rallying point for the Catholic monarchs of Europe. In 1586 a plot to assassinate Elizabeth and put Mary on the throne as the legitimate Queen convinced a reluctant Elizabeth to have Mary executed. This provided the catalyst for Philip II of Spain to invade England in 1588. The resulting defeat of the Spanish Armada made England the supreme maritime power. Elizabeth died on 23 Mar 1603. [Ed: Polaris with her Venus, describes her single minded concerning her ideas on marriage and also her devotion to her country. In addition she had the ability to be fortunate. Fortunate that her half sister and brother died childless, and most fortunate that a storm destroyed the Spanish Armada which would have more then likely defeated England. This is reflected in her stars as Sadalsuud in paran with Jupiter.]

Edward VI, London, United Kingdom

Monarch, Edward was Henry VIII’s only legitimate son by his third wife, Jane Seymour. His mother died 12 days after he was born. Traditionally, Edward has been viewed as a frail child who was never in good health, but an alternative view maintains that until several years before his death he healthy and athletically inclined with a good mind. His father, Henry VIII died on 28 Jan 1547, and Edward succeeded to the throne. As he was a minor, his father had provided that during his minority, the government was to be run by a council of regency. In actual fact, Edward’s uncle, Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset wielded almost supreme power until John Dudley, Earl of Northumberland, overthrew him in 1549. Both consolidated the English Reformation, and mirrored Edward’s own intense devotion to Protestantism. It is said that, had he lived, his religious zeal and extreme obstinacy might have imprinted rigidity and narrowness on the Church of England. In January 1553, Edward showed the first signs of tuberculosis, and by May it was evident that the disease would be fatal. He was determined to exclude his two half-sisters, Mary and Elizabeth, from the succession and put Northumberland’s daughter-in-law, Lady Jane Grey, and her male heirs in direct line for the throne. As a result, a power struggle erupted after Edward’s death on 6 Jul 1553. [Ed: Although a King, in many ways Edward’s life is effected by Zosma culminating with his Venus. He was a victim of his social group. He was both victimised by his regents as well as he victimised his two sisters.]

Claudio Aquaviva, Atri, Italy

Clergyman, Educator, Aquaviva was the youngest general of the Society of Jesus, considered by many to have been the order’s greatest leaders. He joined the order in 1567, aged 25. Shortly after completing his studies he was appointed the superior of Naples and then of Rome. He was elected general in 1581. His rule was marked by a huge growth in the order and his success in outlining the Jesuit system of education for all of the Jesuit schools. He wrote a definitive text (1599) which unified Jesuit teaching world wide. He died in 1615.





Matteo Ricci, Macerata, Italy

Missionary, Ricci introduced Christianity to the Chinese empire in the 16th century and lived there for 30 years. He pioneered the beginnings of mutual understanding between China and the West. He adopted the Chinese language and culture and was therefore able to travel to the interior of China which was closed to all foreigners. He arrived in the East as a missionary with the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) in 1578 and in 1582 he was ordered to proceed to China. His work included writing books in Chinese as well as conversion of the Chinese intelligentsia. He went to Peking in January 1601 and was given permission to stay and he dedicated the rest of his life to the Chinese- teaching them science and preaching the gospel. He died on 11 May 1610. [Ed the paran of Ankaa with his Sun shows his desire to transform the Chinese people]

Prospero Alpini, Marostica, Italy

Physician, Botanist, Alpini is credited with introducing to Europe coffee and bananas. While medical advisor to the Venetian consul in Cairo (1580-83) at the age of 27 years he made an extensive study of Egyptian and Mediterranean flora. He is reputed to have been the first to fertilize the date palms artificially. He published extensive works on botany as well as major medical works on diseases (1601). He died in 1616.

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Galileo Galilei, Florence, Italy

Mathematician, Astronomer, Galileo is considered the father of the experimental method. He popularised the use of the telescope in astronomical observations, discovering the craters of the Moon, sun spots, the satellites of Jupiter and the phases of Mercury. He studied medicine and mathematics and on the completion of a thesis on solids he was appointed lecturer at the University of Padua in 1589. His conflict with the Catholic Church arose through his defence of the Copernican model that placed the Sun at the centre of the solar system and lived under house arrest for the last eight years of his life. He died on 8 Jan 1642.

William Oughtred, Eton, United Kingdom

Mathematician, Oughtred was a mathematician and minister and was responsible for the invention of the earliest slide rule. He became vicar of Slaford in 1604 and then rector of Albury. His years in the ministry coincided with the period of the Commonwealth when clerics were deprived of parishes but he was allowed to continue. Oughtred’s most important work ‘Clavis Mathematicae’ [Keys to Mathematics] published in 1631 included many Arabic notations. He was the first to use the mathematical a symbol to express a proportion and also the symbol ‘x’ to denote multiplication. He had invented a circular form of slide rule before 1632 and by 1633 was already using the rectangular version. He died on 30 June 1660.

William Harvey, Folkestone, United Kingdom

Physician, Harvey is best known for his study and discovery of the circulation of blood and the function of the heart. He attended Kings School between 1588-1593 and went to Cambridge in 1593, earning a bachelor of arts degree in 1597. He studied medicine at the Univeristy of Padua in Italy and received his doctorate in medicine in 1607. His famous treatise on the circulation of the blood was published in 1628. He served as physician to James I who placed the deer in the royal parks at Harvey’s disposal in order to aid with his research. He died on 3 Jun 1657.

John Rolfe, Norwich, United Kingdom

Planter, Colonial Official, Rolfe’s claim to fame was as the husband of Pocahontas, the native American Indian princess he married and who accompanied him back to England.(Ed: This is an interesting expression of Aldebaran in paran with his Moon on the Nadir – he is known for his famous wife, who had great honour and respect). Rolfe sailed for Virginia in 1605 and after being shipwrecked, arrived there the following year. In 1612, he began experimenting with growing tobacco although he found that the local variety did not suit English tastes. He imported seed from the West Indies. In June 1613, he sent the tobacco to England where its widespread acceptance and success ensured the economic stability of the Virginia colony. Pocahontas was then residing in Jamestown as a baptised Christian and Rolfe, a widower, sought permission to marry her. They were wed on 5 April 1617 and two years later the Virginia Company sponsored a trip to England where the couple and their infant son were enthusiastically received. However, tragedy stuck as Pocahontas died from an illness. Rofle returned to Virginia and married again in 1621. During a massacre the following year, he was killed.

Virginia Dare, Roanoke, Virginia

Famous Child, Virginia Dare was the first child born in the Americas. Her parents were in a group of 117 settlers who left England on an expedition sponsored by Sir Walter Raleigh. They were meant to land at Cheasapeake Bay and there establish a colony, but instead they were placed on Roanoake Island. Her grandfather, the head of the expedition, left the colony on 27 Aug and sailed back to England to obtain assistance for the colonists. His arrival coincided with the outbreak of war between England and Spain and he was unable to return with a relief expedition until 1590. On arrival he found no trace of the settlers except for a word ‘croatoan’ carved on a post. Virginia and all the settlers had vanished.

Shah Jahan, Lahor, North-West Frontier, Pakistan

Emperor, Builder, Moghul emperor and builder of the Taj Mahal. His reign was notable for the acquisition of new territory and expansion of influence. He married in 1612, Arjumand Banu Baygam to whom he dedicated the Taj Mahal, built in 1631 after her death.[Ed: Rukbat in paran with his Venus indicating his talent with design and art, and Schedar and Sirius with his Moon showing his noble, artistic soul]and his desire to immortalise his beloved wife]. Shah Jahan was also a renowned builder and is also known for the city he built at Delhi. He fell ill in 1657 and precipitated a struggle for succession to the throne. The successful claimant Aurangzeb, declared himself emperor and confined Shah Jahan to the fort in Agra until his death on 22 Jan 1666.

Rene Descartes, La Haye-du-Puits, France

Philosopher, Descartes is known as the ‘Father of Modern Philosophy’. His most famous axiom ‘I think, therefore I am’ underpinned his belief in the rationality of humankind. Up to the age of 18 he received a Jesuit education and excelled at mathematics. In 1616, he took on a law degree and in 1618 enlisted in the army of the Duke of Orange. This followed a period of travel where he was involved in the early battles of the Thirty Years’ War. In 1619, he formulated his idea of a universal science that would link the all-possible human knowledge together into a coherent and wholistic wisdom. [Ed: Vindemiatrix in paran with his Sun, giving him a desire to collect all knowledge and build something new with it]. On 10 Nov of that year he had, what he described as, a visionary dream in which the nature of this science was revealed to him. In 1628 he moved to Holland where he lived until 1649. That year, he was appointed tutor to Queen Christina of Sweden and went to live in Stockholm where he died the following winter on 1 Feb 1650.

Oliver Cromwell, Huntingdon, United Kingdom

Soldier, Statesman, Cromwell was the leader of the parliamentary forces during the English Civil wars and he was Lord Protector during the period of the Commonwealth from 1653-1658. He was educated at Oxford, he married in 1620 and began his political career when he was elected to Parliament in 1628. In 1641 he was one of the supporters of the Grand Remonstrance presented to Charles I. He was appointed second in command of the Parliamentary force in 1644 and after the execution of Charles I in 1648, he became the first chairman of the Council of State. In 1653, after forcibly closing Parliament, he became Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland. He died on 3 Sep 1658.

Charles I, Dunfermline, United Kingdom

Monarch, English monarch whose autocratic rule and disputes with Parliament led to a civil war and his execution. A second son, he was a sickly child and was left behind in Scotland when his father ascended the throne due to fears that he would not survive the journey. His older brother died in 1612 and he became heir, ascending to the throne in March 1625. Although courteous and refined, he lacked the common touch and his sincere belief in the divine right of kings to rule brought him into conflict with Parliament. On 22 Nov 1641, after many wars and altercations, Parliament passed the Grand Remonstrance that outlined all the things that had gone wrong since Charles ascended the throne. He was asked to surrender control of the army but refused. Fighting erupted and by 1648, the Royalist cause was finished. Charles was brought to trial on 20 Jan 1649 but refused to enter a plea, as he believed that any earthly court could not legally try a king. He was sentenced to death and on 30 Jan 1649 he was beheaded.

Sir Hans Sloane, Killyleagh, United Kingdom

Physician, Naturalist, Sloane was a physician and naturalist whose collection of manuscripts, curiosities, specimens and books formed the basis for the British Museum. He studied medicine and obtained his degree in 1683. He travelled widely and while in Jamaica collected more than 800 new species of plants that were published in a catalogue in 1696. He was made a Baronet in 1716 and was the first medical practitioner so honoured. He was physician to George II as well as President of the Royal Society. He retired in 1741 and on his death bequeathed his collection to the nation with one condition: that Parliament pay his executors 20,000 pounds. His bequest was accepted and went on to become the British Musuem that was opened to the public in 1759. Sloane died on 11 Jan 1753. [Deneb Algedi setting in paran with his Sun shows how he becomes identified as a ‘law giver’ a person who creates a foundation of knowledge in his later years]

Harmenszoon van Rijn Rembrandt, Leiden, Netherlands

Painter, Rembrandt is one of the masters of seventeenth century art. He left univeristy to study art and by 1631 had established a reputation. He married in 1634. The 1640’s were a turning point. His beloved wife died in 1642 and he fell from favour as public tastes changed. He embarked on a new relationship in 1649 but his debts forced him to declare bankruptcy in 1656. His self portraits in the 1650’s became a canvas of human emotions. He died on 4 Oct 1669.

Giacomo Torelli, Fano, Italy

Stage Designer, Engineer, His development of theatre machinery and techniques provided the basis for modern theatrical devices. He was originally a military engineer and also had a reputation as an architect. He built two churches in Venice as well as the Teatro Novissimo which he equipped innovative machinery including a revolving stage. He was known all over Europe as ‘the great wizard’. [Ed Alpheratz in paran with his Mercury] In 1645 he was summoned to France by Louis XIV and there equipped the Theatre du Petit-Bourbon with incredible devices including machinery that made rapid set changes possible. In turn, these encourage the development of ornate scenery design. He died on 17 June 1768.

Evangelista Torricelli, Faenza, Italy

Physicist, Mathematician, Toricelli invented the barometer and his work in geometry led to the development of integral calculus. He was inspired by Galileo’s writings and his treatise ‘Concerning Movement’ impressed Galileo. In 1641 he was invited to serve as secretary and assistant to Galileo, which he did for the last 3 months of Galileo’s life. After Galileo’s death, Torricelli was appointed to succeed him as professor of mathematics at the Florentine Academy. In 1643, he took on board a suggestion made to him by Galileo, and embarked on an experiment, which saw him become the first person to create a sustained vacuum. His findings were never published, as he was deeply engrossed in the study of pure mathematics. He died on 25 Oct 1647.

John Milton, London, United Kingdom

Poet, Milton is known as one of the greatest poets of the English language especially due to his epic ‘Paradise Lost’. [Ed: Sirius with his Venus shows firstly his great poetry and secondly the drama of his life.] Milton was educated at Christ’s College, Cambridge from between 1625-1632 where he studied and wrote poetry in English, Latin and Italian. He then left Cambridge and retired to his father’s estate between 1632-1638, produced his first dramatic piece and later travelled to Italy. He became involved in the Puritan cause and agitated for religious and civil liberty and served as a government minister in the Cromwell regime. Between 1651-1652, he lost his sight but nevertherless continued his work. When the monarchy was restored, Milton was arrested and then later released. Paradise Lost (1667), Paradise Regained (1671) and other later poetry was composed in his head and dictated to family members or students. He died on 8 Nov 1674.

Savinien Cyrano de Bergerac, Paris, France

Satirist, Cyrano de Bergerac is known for his political satires as well as his science fiction fantasies. He was also later portrayed as a brilliant but shy lover who had a very large nose. He joined the company of guards as a young man and took part in the Siege of Arras in 1640. He gave up the military life to pursue his studies in philosophy and mathematics. He wrote several works among them ‘A Voyage to the Moon: with some account of the solar world’ satirised the religious and scientific views of the 17th century. He also helped popularise science through his writing and ‘predicted’ such items as the phonograph and the atomic structure of matter. He was also a great critic of authority and encouraged freethinking. He died on 28 Jul 1655.

Jan Riebeeck, Culemborg, Netherlands

Merchant, Founder of Cape Town and responsible for the establishment fo white settlement in South Africa. He joined the Dutch East India Company as a surgeon in 1639 and was sent to Batavia. He then went to Japan. In 1645 he was placed in charge of the company in Tongking but was dismissed for a breach of Company rules banning private trading. He was reinstated in 1651 and led the expedition South Africa where his brief was to establish a provisioning station and fort for ships travelling to East India. [Ed: This breaking new ground is expressed by Arcturus in paran with his Sun] After crop failures and attempted mutinies, Riebeeck recommended that the provisioning station would be a failure unless ‘free’ burghers, working their own farms, supported it. In 1657, this measure was instigated and former servants of the East India Company were given letters of freedom that protected company interests. Riebeeck also encouraged the importation of slaves and exploration of the interior. He died on 18 Jan 1677.

Jean Picard, La Fleche, Pays de la Loire, France

Astronomer, Picard was the first to accurately measure the length of a degree of longitude and used it as the basis of calculating the size of the Earth. He became a professor of astronomy in 1655. His calculations of the Earth’s size were used by Newton to verify his theory of gravity. In 1671 he visited Tycho Brahe in order to determine the exact location of the observatory. This was done so that Brahe’s observations could be compared with those made elsewhere. Picard is also credited with the introduction of telescopic sights and the use of a pendulum clock to provide greater accuracy in astronomical observations. In 1675 he made the first observations of barometric light and in 1679 he founded ‘La Connaissance des temps ou des mouvements celsetes’ (Knowledge of Time or the Celestial Motions), the first national astronomical ephemeris. He died on 12 July 1682.

Juan Valdes, Sevilla, Spain

Painter, president of the Seville Academy, and the major figure in Sevillian painting for many years, known for his dramatic, inventive, and often violent paintings. His father was Portuguese, and he was educated in Cordoba and worked there until 1653. For the next few years he painted both in Cordoba and Seville. He moved to Seville in 1656, where he became in 1660 an original member of the Academy there (founded by Murillo), and later (1663-66) he served as its president. After the death of Murillo he was the principal painter in Seville. His paintings all characterized by their macabre subject matter and theatrical violence. The violence of his subjects has often distracted attention from the inventiveness of his execution. [Ed: His art can be described as a reflection of Alphard in paran to his Venus as well as Capulus in paran to his Mercury] He died on 15 Oct 1690.

Soko Yamaga, Aizu-Bange, Japan

Soldier, Military strategist and Confucian philosopher who set forth the first systematic exposition of missions and obligations of the samurai (warrior) class and who made major contributions Japanese military science. Yamaga’s thought became the central core of what later came to be known as Bushido (Code of Warriors), which was the guiding ethos Japan’s military throughout the Tokugawa period (1603-1867) and down to the end of Wold War II.

Originally a ronin (masterless samurai) he gained renown as a teacher and philosopher and in 1622 was appointed military instructor to the lord of Ako. In 1665 he published a critique of Neo-Confucianism and his views were seen as a potential challenge to Tokugawa authority and he was banished from the capital and exiled to one of the remote corners of Japan. He died on 23 Oct 1682 in Edo

Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand, France

Mathematician, Philosopher, Pascal’s greatest contribution is as the founder of the modern theory of probabilities. At the age of 17 he published a mathematical essay which was highly regarded. Between 1642 and 1644 he invented the first digital calculator to help his mathematician father. [His legacy in mathematics is an expression of Markab with his Mercury, building a body of work, which acts as a foundation stone for others.] His further studies led him to invent the syringe and the hydraulic press as well as formulate Pascal’s law of pressure. At the end of 1653, he started to have religious scruples and experienced a ‘night of fire’ on 23 Nov 1654. He saw this as a beginning of a new life. From then, he only took up his pen at the request of his superiors at the Convent of Port-Royal which he entered in 1655. He died on 19 Aug 1662

Charles Perrault, Paris, France

Storyteller, Perrault is best known for his collection of stories for children first published in French in 1697 and in English in 1729 as ‘Tales of Mother Goose (Contes de ma me’re l’oye). [Ed: A simple expression of his Moon in paran with Vindemiatrix, the collector, as it culminated]. Perrault originally trained as a lawyer but started to gain a literary reputation by about 1660 and spent the rest of his life encouraging the appreciation of arts and literature. He was made a member of the Academie Francaise in 1671. He advocated the liberalisation of the confines of tradition and caused sharp divisions in the French literary world of the time. His fairy stories, written to amuse his children included ‘Little Red Riding Hood’, ‘Sleeping Beauty’ and ‘Puss in Boots’ to name a few. The stories wre modern adaptations of folk takes. Perrault died 15/16 May 1703.

Samuel Pepys, London, United Kingdom

Diarist, Pepys is best known for his ‘Diaries’ in which he described official and upper class life in England during the period known as the Restoration. Pepys was of humble parentage and rose to become one of the most important men of his day. He served as one of England’s earliest secretary of the Admirality, as a member of Parliament and President of the Royal Society. One of his most important roles was approving the publication, by the Royal Society, of Isaac Newton’s ‘Principia Mathematica’. He served as Master of Trinity House and as baron of the Cinque Ports. He also had strong royal connections, having noted the account of Charles II’s escape from the Battle of Worcester as dictated by the king. He also witnessed James II’s will before the king’s flight in 1688. His diary, which is his major claim to fame, was kept between his 27th and 36th year and he excluded nothing from his journals. Pepy’s counted among his friends, Sir Christopher Wren, Sir Isaac Newton, John Evelyn, John Dryden and many other scholars of his day. He died on 26 May 1703.

Bernardino Ramazzini, Carpi, Italy

Physician, Ramazzini is best remembered as the founder of industrial medicine. His studies of occupational diseases and advocacy of measures to ensure safe working conditions helped the passage of laws regarding factory safety and workers compensation. His work ‘De Morbis Artificum Diatriba’ [Diseases of Workers] in 1713 was the first comprehensive work which detailed occupational diseases and the health hazards of industrial materials and corrosive agents in 52 occupations. He was appointed professor of medicine at the Univeristy of Padua in 1700, a post he held until his death on 5 Nov 1714.

Ole Rommer, Arhus, Denmark

Astronomer, Romer established with certainty that light travelled at a finite speed. He went in 1672 to Paris where he worked for nine years at the Royal Observatory. There he observed that the time elapsed between the eclipses of Jupiter’s Moon by the planet itself became shorter as the earth moved closer to Jupiter and longer when it moved away. He concluded that this was caused by the time need for the light to travel the distance between Jupiter and Earth. In 1679 he went to London where he met with Isaac Newton, John Flamsteed and Edmond Halley. On returning to Denmark in 1681, he was appointed professor of astronomy at the University of Conpenhagen. Romer set up an instrument at the university observatory with altitude and azimuth circles and a telescope, which accurately measured the position of celestial objects. He died on23 Sep 1710.

William Penn, London, United Kingdom

Advocate of Religious Freedom, *Penn was a Quaker leader and the strength of his beliefs led him to oversee the founding of the colony of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania as a refuge for Quakers and other religious non-conformists who were being hounded out of England and Europe. His father was an admiral and spent most of Penn’s childhood at sea. He was imprisoned as a result of a battle and due to political uncertainty, the family was forced to move. Penn later said that ‘..the Lord first appeared unto me..about the 12th year of my age, anno 1656’ and later was drawn to the Quakers. In 1674, he applied for a grant of land in the New World and was granted Pennsylvannia on charter from the Crown which named him supreme governor. Pennsylvania’s statutes of religious toleration and independence were being undermined by the English Corwn’s absolutist policies and Penn spent much of his time in England fighting them. In 1702, disheartened by what he saw as un-Quakerly behaviour and disappointed and betrayed by fraud and disloyalty in the colony, he made arrangements to sell ‘the unholy experiment’. He suffered a crippling stroke on 1712 and died on 30 July 1718.

John Flamsteed, Derby, United Kingdom

Astronomer, Flamsteed was the first Astronomer Royal of England. His report resulted in the establishment of the Greenwich Observatory in 1675 and he was its first director. He published a star catalogue with the position of over 3,000 stars more accurately located than any other work previously published. Poor health caused him drop out of school at sixteen years of age, but he studied astronomy on his own and in 1670 continued his studies at Cambridge. He was ordained in 1675 and in 1677 became a member of the Royal Society. Apart from a small income, he found that he had to provide all the instruments at the Observatory so in order to make ends meet, he took in private pupils. His later years were filled with controversy over his celestial observations. Many, including Newton and Halley, sort his observations before Flamsteed had completed them and great pressure was brought to bear on Flamsteed. Eventually the imcomplete observations, edited by Halley, were published in 1712. A total of 400 copies were printed and Flamsteed eventually managed to burn 300 of them. He died several years later on 31 Dec 1719.

Nathaniel Bacon, Sudbury, Suffolk, United Kingdom

Rebel leader, Virginia planter and leader of Bacon’s Rebellion in Virginia, USA. His wife’s disinheritance (her father opposed her marriage) and his involvement in a plan to defraud a neighbour of his inheritance contributed to Bacon’s decision to migrate to North America. Financed by his father, Bacon acquired two estates along the James River in Virginia. Less than a year after his arrival in the colony he was appointed to Governor William Berkeley’s council. When a dispute with Berkeley, who was his cousin by marriage, arose over the Indian policy, Bacon, a proponent of unlimited territorial expansion, organized an expedition against the Indians (1676). The governor, fearing a large-scale war, denounced Bacon’s activities as rebellion. In turn, Bacon directed his forces against Berkeley and for a time controlled practically all of Virginia. At the height of his power, however, Bacon died at age 29, 1676 and the rebellion collapsed.

Denis Papin, Blois, France

Physicist, Denis Papin invented the pressure cooker and he also suggested the idea of a piston and cylinder steam engine. In 1679 he invented the pressure cooker or steam digester, as it was known, complete with safety valve to prevent explosions. His observations of the steam and its power to raise the lid of the cooker, led him to conceive using steam to drive a piston in a cylinder which was the basic design of the early steam engine. He died in 1712. [Ed: His inventive mind is shown by Vega in paran with his Mars].

Samuel Sewall, Bishopstoke, United Kingdom

Merchant, Judge, Sewall was a colonial merchant and a judge in the Salem witchcraft trials. He graduated from Harvard in 1671 and commenced his public career in 1679 when he was made a ‘freeman’ denoting that he could participate in the governing of the colony. In 1692 he was named by the then Governor Phillips to try the Salem witchcraft cases in which 19 people were accussed and condemned to die. Sewall was the only judge to admit the error of the decisions and he stood in the church in Boston as his confession of error and guilt was publicly read aloud. He died on 1 Jan 1730.

Francis Atterbury, Buckingham, United Kingdom

Clergyman, Controversialist, Atterbury studied at Oxford and took holy orders, becoming Dean of Carlisle in 1704, aged 41. He rose through the ranks of the Church to become Bishop of Rochester and Dean of Westminster by 1713. However, in 1715, at aged 52 he refused to sign the bishops’ declaration of fidelity, and in 1722 was committed to the Tower for complicity in an attempt to restore the Stuarts. He was deprived of all his offices, and exiled. He died in 1732. [Ed: This chart has been set to a pre dawn birth as this seems to be supported in his parans]

Jonathan Swift, Dublin, Dublin, Ireland

Novelist, Anglo-Irish author who was the foremost prose satirist in the English language. Besides the celebrated novel Gulliver’s Travels (1726), he wrote such shorter works as A Tale of a Tub (1704) and ‘A Modest Proposal’ (1729). Swift’s father, was an Englishman who had settled in Ireland. In the spring of 1667 the father died suddenly, leaving his wife, baby daughter, and an unborn son to the care of his brothers. Jonathan Swift thus grew up fatherless and dependent on the generosity of his uncles. In 1682 he entered Trinity College, Dublin, where he was granted his Bachelor of Arts degree in February 1686. He continued in residence at Trinity College as a candidate for his Master of Arts degree until February 1689. But the Roman Catholic disorders had begun to spread and caused Swift to seek security in England. In London he became increasingly well known through several works: his religious and political essays; A Tale of a Tub; and certain impish works, including the ‘Bickerstaff’ pamphlets of 1708- 09. Swift quickly became the Tories’ chief pamphleteer and political writer and, by the end of October 1710, had taken over the Tory journal, The Examiner, which he continued to edit until June 14, 1711. Swift was rewarded for his services in April 1713 with his appointment as dean of St. Patrick’s Cathedral in Dublin. Swift’s greatest satire, Gulliver’s Travels, was published on 28 Oct 1726. [Ed: El Nath setting in paran to his Mercury gave him the cutting edge with words and ideas that marked his life]. Its success was immediate. He continued to be active in Ireland. In the autumn of 1739 a great celebration was held in his honour. He had, however, begun to fail physically and later suffered a paralytic stroke, with subsequent aphasia. In 1742 he was declared incapable of caring for himself, and guardians were appointed. After his death on 19 Oct 1745, he was buried in St. Patrick’s Cathedral.

Joseph Addison, Marlborough, United Kingdom

Essayist, Politician, A student at Oxford he was a distinguished Classical scholar, beginning his literary career in 1693 with a poetical address to Dryden. In 1699 he obtained a pension to train for the diplomatic service, and spent four years abroad. He produced an opera ‘Rosamond’ 1706 and was elected to parliament in 1708. In 1715 – 16 he produced a political newspaper the ‘Freeholder’ which cost him many of his old friends, and he was satirized as ‘Atticus’ by Alexander Pope. In 1717 he was appointed secretary of state but resigned his post due to failing health.

Peter I, the Great, Moscow, Russia

Monarch, Peter the Great of Russia was responsible for extending Russian borders and involving Russian in Europe. He reigned with his brother Ivan from 1682-1696 and then alone between 1696-1721. He was given a progressive education and at 17 was married but his wife was relegate to a convent 10 years later. He toured Europe between 1697-1698 and as a result transferred the capital to St Petersburg where he could be closer to the hub of European activity. He introduced western technology and overhauled the Russian military and government structures. He also increased the power of the monarchy at the expense of the Russian Orthodox Church and the nobility. His vision of a powerful Russia saw him engage in battles with the Ottoman Empire to gain access to the Black and Baltic Seas and with Persia to secure the shores of the Caspian Sea. He died on 8 Feb 1725.

Daniel Fahreinheit, Gdansk, Poland

Physicist, Fahreinheit invented the alcohol and mercury thermometers as well as introducing the Fahreinheit scale of temperature measurement. He introduced the alcohol thermometer in 1709 and one using mercury in 1714. He spent his life dedicated to the manufacture of precision instruments. He died on 16 Sep 1736.

Alexander Pope, Twickenham, United Kingdom

Poet, Satirist, Pope is best known for his works ‘The Rape of the Lock’, ‘Essay on Criticism’, ‘The Dunciad’ and ‘Essay on Man’. Pope’s family was Catholic and this precluded him from obtaining a formal education. Although he attended some Catholic schools, he was mainly self-taught and learned Greek, Latin, French and Italian.[Ed Fomalhaut rising in paran with Jupiter gave him a love of learning and an early artistic flare.]. He also started writing at an early age, dedicating works to family and friends. His life long work was a verse translation of Homer. The ‘Iliad’ was published in 1720 and the ‘Odyssey’ between 1725-1726. The success of both was that Pope translated the works as if they would have been written in the early 18th century. He died on 30 May 1744.

Giuseppi Tartini, Piraino, Italy

Musician, Italian violinist, composer, and theorist who helped establish the modern style of violin bowing and formulated principles of musical ornamentation and harmony. Tartini studied divinity and law and before the age of 20 he secretly married a protégée of the archbishop of Padua, resulting eventually in his arrest. Disguised as a monk, he fled and took refuge in a monastery at Assisi. There his violin playing attracted attention and ultimately influenced the archbishop (Acubens in paran to Venus) to allow Tartini to return to his wife at Padua. He eventually after much success founded (1728) a school of violin playing and composition. Tartini’s playing was said to be remarkable, and his bowing became a model for later schools of violinists. He contributed to the science of acoustics by his discovery of the difference tone, also called the Tartini tone, a third note heard when two notes are played steadily and with intensity. He also devised a theory of harmony based on affinities with algebra and geometry, set forth in his ‘Treatise on Music’ (1754) and expanded into ‘Dissertation on the Principles of Musical Harmony'(1767). His theoretical works also include Trattato delle appoggiature (‘Treatise on Ornamentation’). He died on 26 Feb 1770.

John Harrison, York, United Kingdom

Horologist, Harrison is best known as the man who discovered longitude. He developed a series of clocks which helped navigators accurately compute longitude at sea. Trained as a carpenter, he became interested in the then problem of computing the time at sea and started the development of chronometers in 1728. As a result of several maritime disasters and much lobbying from merchants, the British crown offered a prize of 20,000 pounds to the person who developed the first system by which longitude could be computed at sea. Harrison built his first chronometer in 1735 and submitted it to the Board of Longitude. He subsequently built 3 more and finally in 1762, the No 4 chronometer was tested and foun d to have a margin of error of only five second. Although Harrison’s chronometer met all the criteria, he did not receive any money until 1763 when he was given 5,000 pounds. He was not given the full prize money until 1773. Harrison died in 1776. [Vindemiatrix in paran with his Mercury reflects his passion about clocks and time].

Jean Baptiste Anville, Paris, France

Geographer, Cartographer, Anville greatly improved the standards of ancient and mediaeval map-making. Whenever possible he adjusted measurements to astronomically determined positions. [Ed Anville’s persistence with his work is an expression of Betelgeuse in paran with his Mars]. His pre-eminence was recognised by his appointment as first geographer to the king of France (1773). He died in 1782.

Anders Celsius, Uppsala, Uppsala Lan, Sweden

Astronomer, Celsius is best known for his invention of the Celsius thermometer scale. He was professor of astronomy at the University of Uppsala from 1730 – 1744. While there he built the Uppsala Observatory in 1740. He was a member of an expedition that verified Newton’s theory that the earth is flat at the poles. In 1742 he described his thermometer scale in a paper to the Swedish Academy of Sciences. He died on 25 Apr 1744.

John Wesley, Epworth, United Kingdom

Religious Leader, Anglican clergyman, evangelist, and founder, of the Methodist movement in the Church of England. After six years of education, he entered Christ Church, Oxford University, in 1720. Graduating in 1724, he resolved to be ordained a priest. In 1725 he was made a deacon and the following year was elected a fellow of Lincoln College. After assisting his father at Epworth and Wroot, he was ordained a priest on Sept. 22, 1728. Recalled to Oxford in October 1729, John joined his brother Charles, Robert Kirkham, and William Morgan in a religious study group that was derisively called the ‘Methodists’ because of their emphasis on methodical study and devotion. From 1730 on, the group visited prisoners, taught them to read, payed their debts, and helped find them employment. Following his father’s death in April 1735, John was persuaded top go to the colony of Georgia in North America, to oversee the spiritual lives of the colonists and to missionize the Indians. He had a naive attachment to Sophia Hopkey, niece of the chief magistrate of Savannah, who married another man, and Wesley unwisely courted criticism by repelling her from Holy Communion. In December 1737 he fled from Georgia; misunderstandings and persecution stemming from the Sophia Hopkey episode forced him to go back to England. [Ed: Sadalsuud with his Sun shows that after misfortune and success can come.] On May 24, 1738, in Aldersgate Street, London, at a prayer meeting, Wesley’s intellectual conviction was transformed into a personal experience while Luther’s preface to the commentary to the Letter of Paul to the Romans was being read. From this point onward, at the age of 35, Wesley viewed his mission in life as one of proclaiming the good news of salvation by faith, which he did whenever a pulpit was offered him. For a year he worked through existing church societies, but resistance to his methods increased. In 1739 he was persuaded to go to the unchurched masses. Wesley gathered converts into societies for continuing fellowship and spiritual growth, and he was asked by a London group to become their leader. Soon other such groups were formed in London, Bristol, and elsewhere. To avoid the scandal of unworthy members, Wesley published, in 1743, Rules for the Methodist societies. Because the Bishop of London would not ordain some of his preachers to serve in the United States, Wesley took it upon himself, in 1784, to do so. In the same year he pointed out that his societies operated independently of any control by the Church of England. In many ways his life is an expression of Al Rescha with his Saturn. He died 2 March 1791.

John Kay, Bury, Sussex, United Kingdom

Inventor,Kay’s fame lies in his invention of the flying shuttle which helped automate the process of weaving wool. The son of a wool merchant and manufacturer, he was in charge of his father’s mill. On 26 May 1733 he received the patent for a new machine which incorporated his flying shuttle. This enabled one weaver to weave fabrics of any length and width quicker than two could previously. The adoption of Kay’s invention was widespread but by forming a protective club, the weavers avoided paying Kay any royalties. He lost most of his money in litigation and retired to France where he died in obscurity and poverty. [Ed: His time of birth has been set to before sun rise as these stars are more supportive of his life story.]

Benjamin Franklin, Boston, Massachusetts

Inventor, Author, Diplomat, Franklin is best known for his role in the formation of the United States of America and its separation from Great Britain. One of 17 children, Franklin left school at 12 and was apprenticed to his brother, a printer. Later, he established a newspaper and advocated the establishment of public services such as a fire department, public library and academy. In 1748 he gave up journalism and turned to science. His inventions included bi-focal glasses, the Franklin stove and the lightning rod. Franklin also helped draft the American constitution and was instrumental in negotiating a peace treaty with Great Britain after the American War on Independence. He died on 17 Apr 1790.

John Baskerville, Wolverton, Buckinghamshire, United Kingdom

Printer, Typeface Creator, Baskerville was an English printer and creator of a typeface of great distinction bearing his name, whose works are among the finest examples of the art of printing.[Ed: Phact in paran with his Venus showed his original thinking in matters or design]. Baskerville became a writing master at Birmingham but in 1740 established a japanning (varnishing) business, whose profits enabled him to experiment in type founding. He set up a printing house and in 1757 published his first work, an edition of Virgil, followed in 1758 by an edition of John Milton. Appointed printer to the University of Cambridge, he undertook an edition of the Bible (1763), which is considered his masterpiece. He published a particularly beautiful edition of Horace in 1762; the success of a second edition (1770) encouraged him to issue a series of editions of Latin authors.

The bold quality of Baskerville’s print derived from his use of a highly glossed paper and a truly black ink that he had invented. His typography was much criticized in England, but after his death the French dramatist Pierre-Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais purchased his types. Their subsequent history is uncertain, but in 1917 the surviving punches and matrices were recognized, and in 1953 they were presented to the University of Cambridge. Baskerville type has been revived, its clarity and balance making it a good type for continuous reading. He died in 1775.

Sir John Pringle, Roxburgh, United Kingdom

Physician, Pringle is credited with writing the manual outlining the procedures for the establishment of military hospitals. [Ras Alhague in paran with his Venus indicating his desire to spread knowledge which will aid healing]. He cited the importance of ventilation as well as sanitation. He became physician to the commander of the British forces in the Low Countries at the time of the War of the Austrian sucession. He recognised that the various strains of dysentery as one disease, realised that typhus was the same disease described variously as ‘jail’ or ‘hospital’ fever and was the first person to coin the term ‘influenza’. He also suggested that military and field hospitals should be recognised as sanctuaries and protected from all antagonists. [Ed: Capulus in paran with his Jupiter showing its positive side of bringing healing or help to the battle field]. This concept formed the basis for the establishment of the Red Cross in 1864. Pringle died on 18 Jan 1782.

Andreas Marggraf, Berlin, Berlin, Germany

Chemist,Marggraf is remembered as the discoverer of beet sugar which led to the development of the sugar industry. He served as assistant to his father, who was the court apothecary and later director of the chemical laboratory at the Germany Academy of Sciences. In 1747, Marggraf discovered beet sugar. He also introduced the microscope as an aid to chemical inquiry. He died on 7 Aug 1782.

Samuel Johnson, Lichfield, United Kingdom

Poet, Lexicographer, Johnson is regarded as an outstanding literary figure and among his contributions is the ‘Dictionary of the English Language’, the first to use illustrative historical quotations. He was educated at Oxford and set up a school which failed. In 1737 he went to London and took up journalism. In 1745 he started writing essays on Shakespeare and in 1746 signed a contract to prepare the Ductionary which brought him great fame. He met James Boswell in 1763 and thus started the most famous literary friendship. In 1765 he completed his work on Shakespeare and was awarded an LLB by Trinity College, Dublin. Johnson was known for his wit and conversation as well as his writing . He died on 13 Dec 1784.

Thomas Arne, London, United Kingdom

Composer, A skilful violinist, who turned to composing with his first opera ‘Rosamond (1773). He was appointed composer to Drury Lane Theatre, for which he composed famous settings of Shakespearean songs. His most famous song is ‘Rule Britannia’. He died in 1778.

Junipero Serra, Majorca, Spain

Missionary, Serra’s work in North America earned him the title of ‘Apostle of California’. He entered the Franciscan order in 1730, was ordained in 1738 and arrived in Mexico in 1750. When Spain opened up exploration to the north, he accompanied the expeditionary commander. On 16 Jul 1769, he founded Mission San Diego, the first within the boundaries of present day California. Between 1770 – 1782 he founded eight more missions which became the foundations of cities in modern California. They include Carmel, Monterey, San Antonio, San Gabriel, San Luis Obispo, San Francisco, San Juan Capistrano, Santa Clara and San Buenaventura. Serra’s missionary work helped strengthen the Spanish hold on California until 1822. He died on 28 Aug 1784.

Jeffrey Amherst, Sevenoaks, United Kingdom

Soldier, Amherst joined the army at aged 14 years and he played an important phase of the Seven Years’ War (1756-63). He was in command of the expedition against the French in Canada and captured Louisburg (1758) and Montreal in 1760. He was appointed the Governor-General of British North America and then commander-in-chief of the British army (1772-96).

Maria Agnesi, Milan, Italy

Mathematician, Scholar, The daughter of a professor of mathematics at Bologna, she was a child prodigy, speaking six languages by the age of 11. her mathematical textbook ‘Istituzioni analitiche’ (1784) which was published when she was 66 years old became famous throughout Italy. A curve, the ‘witch of Agnesi’ is named after her. (Ed: In many ways her inner vision is expressed in her chart by Alcyone in paran with her Sun) She died in 1799.

John Montagu 4th Earl of Sandwich, London, United Kingdom

British Politician, Montagu’s fame rests on the fact that the sandwich was named after him. He was educated at Eton and Cambridge and took his seat in the House of Lords in 1739. He was known for his administrative abilities but during the American Revolution, he came under intense criticism as he kept the British fleet in European waters, fearing an attack by the French. He was very interested in the navy and promoted the idea of exploration. Cook named the Sandwich Island (now Hawaii) after him in 1788. The sandwich was named after him in 1762 when he spent 24 hours gambling and resorted to cramming meat between two slices of bread to sustain during that period. He died on 30 April 1792.

Madame de Pompadour, Paris, France

Mistress, Known as the influential mistress of the French King Louis XV, she was also a patron of literature and the arts. Her father was a wealthy merchant whose shady dealings forced him to flee France leaving behind a wife and two children to be cared for by a friend. De Pompadour was raised to be the wife of a wealthy man and encouraged to indulge her interest in literature and the arts. She married and became a shining star of Parisian social life and admired by Louis XV. When his mistress died suddenly, de Pompadour obtained a legal separation from her husband and moved into the royal palace. She became the king’s artistic and political collaborator and remained a strong influence for twenty years. During this time France gained an apogee in the decorative as a result of royal patronage. She was also the protector of most of the writers who contributed to the ‘Encyclopedie’ as well as its editor although she was not able to promotte literature as much as the arts because of the King’s lackof interest as well as suspicion of scholars. She died on 15 April 1764. [Ed: In many ways her struggle to maintain and protect the artistic work of the day and edit the Encyolopedia while the king was in disfavour of these activities is an expression of Alphard in paran with her Mercury]

John Basedow, Hamburg, Germany

Educator, Reformer, Basedow was an influential German educational reformer who advocated the use of realistic teaching methods and the introduction of nature study, physical education, and manual training into the schools. He also called for an end to physical punishment and to rote memorization in language learning.

Basedow as a boy revolted against the harsh discipline of his school and ran away from home. He became the servant of a physician, who urged him to return to school, and in 1744 entered the University of Leipzig. Brilliant but undisciplined, he refused to study and instead wrote term papers for money, tutored wealthy students, and spent his earnings in dissipation. [Ed: Capella in paran with his Sun showing his independent nature and love of personal freedom.]

In 1749 he became tutor to a difficult aristocratic child, and it was then that he began inventing games as aids to teaching. His success brought him an appointment in 1753 as a teacher of philosophy at the Danish Academy of Suro. There he fascinated his students with his lectures but alienated his colleagues by his riotous living and attacks on organized religion. Expelled from the academy, he obtained a similar post at the Gymnasium at Altona, but this time he failed to impress his students, who were mostly aristocratic and from conservative families.

Basedow’s views were based on the writings of men such as John Amos Comenius, John Locke, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau. His practical teaching methods were more expansive in their implications for education than those of any of his immediate predecessors in the field, and by the early 19th century they had become a fundamental force in Germany’s public school systems.[Ed Deneb Algedi with his Jupiter in his chart makes a law giving, educational statement] He died in 1790.

Michel Adanson, Aix-en-Provence, France

Botanist, Adanson was the first exponent of classification of plants into natural orders, before Linnaeus.

James Cook, Marton, Yorkshire, North Riding, United Kingdom

Explorer, Cook is best known for his voyages of exploration and his discovery of many Pacific Island including Hawaii as well as Australia and New Zealand. He also led expeditions to the Antarctic in the south and the Bering Strait in the north. He was at school until the age of 12 and an apprenticeship in the port town of Whitby sharpened his taste for the sea. In 1746, at the age of 18 he was apprenticed to a shipowner and at 21 was a rated able seaman. He was offered his first command in 1755 and then transferred to the Royal Navy. At 29, he was the master of a Royal Navy ship and saw action in the Seven Years War as well as charting expeditions of Newfoundland. In 1768 he was appointed commander of the first scientific expedition jointly organised by the Royal Society and the Admiralty. His tasks included observing the transits of Venus across the Sun and find the southern continent. On 19 Apr 1770, he arrived on the southeast coast of Australia. He embarked on two other voyages of exploration and was slain in Hawaii on 14 Feb 1779.

Gasparo Angiolini, Florence, Italy

Choreographer, Composer,Angiolini was one of the first to integrate dance, music and plot in dramatic ballets. At 25 years old he became ballet master of the Vivenna court opera house. By 1761, age 29, he worked with the composer Cristoph Gluck to produce ‘Don Juan, ou le festin de pierre’ which was a land mark in ballet as it most of the plot was expressed in dance. Most of his reforms to ballet came in his 20’s and 30’s after which he continued with this life theme. he died in 1803.

Benjamin Banneker, Ellicott City, Maryland

Mathematician, Astronomer, Banneker was one of the first important black American intellectuals.

A free black who owned a farm near Baltimore, Banneker was largely self-educated in astronomy by watching the stars and in mathematics by reading borrowed textbooks. In 1761 he attracted attention by building a wooden clock that kept precise time. Encouraged in his studies by a Maryland industrialist, Joseph Ellicott, he began astronomical calculations about 1773, accurately predicted a solar eclipse in 1789, and published annually from 1791 to 1802 the Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia Almanac and Ephemeris. Appointed to the District of Columbia Commission by President George Washington in 1790, he worked with Andrew Ellicott and others in surveying Washington, D.C.

As an essayist and pamphleteer, Banneker opposed slavery and war. He sent a copy of his first almanac to Thomas Jefferson, then U.S. secretary of state, along with a letter asking Jefferson’s aid in bringing about better conditions for American blacks. Banneker’s almanacs were acclaimed by European scientists to whom Jefferson made them known. He died in 1731.

George Washington, Westmoreland, Virginia

General statesman, and first president of the United States, George Washington was born in Westmoreland County, Virginia. At his father’s death, the 11-year-old boy became the ward of his eld est half brother, Lawrence, who gave him wise and affectionate care. At the age of 14 he began work as a surveyor. In 1752 he inherited his brother’s estate, one of the finest in Virginia. His first military experience came in the French and Indian Wars (1754-63). In 1755 he accompanied Braddock’s ill-fated march on Fort Duquesne. He then spent the next 15 years managing the family estate. He returned to arms as commander for the American army that gathered around Boston in 1775. He accepted the surrender of the British commander Cornwallis in 1781. He was unanimously chosen president of the Constitutional Convention in 1787 and overwhelmingly elected first president of the republic in 1789, He was re-elected in 1792. Washington died on 14 Dec 1799. [ED: With Ankaa in paran with his Saturn and is a phase of Arising and Lying Hidden we can understand how Washington became the vessel from which the glory and honour of the US presidency grew, as well as his role as the father of that democracy. In addition Murzims in paran to his Saturn gave his words the respect required in order for him to be accepted as the first President His honesty is reflected in the paran of Mercury to Sadalsuud.]

Richard Arkwright, Lancashire, England

Inventor, In his early career as a wig-maker he travelled widely in Great Britain and began his life long practice of self-education. In 1764 he began construction of a spinning machine that could produce a strong enough thread to be used as the warp thread in weaving. With this invention he opened two factories. In 1773 he commenced to also produce all-cotton calico and thus established cotton-cloth manufacturing as the leading industry of northern England. He died in 1792 a very wealth man.

Joseph Priestley, Leeds, Yorkshire, West Riding, United Kingdom

Scientist, Priestley is best known as the discoverer of oxygen. He was a sickly child but also an ardent learner. [Ed: Betelgeuse with his Mercury in his youth] He entered the Ministry in 1752 and in 1755 was appointed assistant minister. His religious beliefs evolved from the Calvinism of his childhood through to a rational Unitarianism although he remained a pious and religious man. He became interested in science and beginning in 1765 he spent a month a year in London meeting the scientists of the day. His most famous discovery was made on 1 Aug 1774 when he obtained a colourless gar when he heated red mercuric oxide. He found that a candle burned well in the ‘air’. His discovery and meeting with the French scientist Lavoiser the following year proved significant to the emerging science of chemistry. Priestley also discovered ammonia, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen and a gas later known as carbon monoxide. His observations on the quality of plant growth in relation to light was used to describe the process of photosynthesis. Priestley was also an ardent supporter of the principles which underpinned the French Revolution. He died on 6 Feb 1804.

Jean-Henri Riesener, Munster, Alsace, France

Cabinetmaker, Riesener was the best known cabinet maker during the reign of France’s Louis XVI. He joined the workshop of the then master cabinetmaker, Oeben in 1754 and, when his master died in 1763, he was placed in charge of the workshop. Riesener later married his master’s widow. He made his name and established his reputation by completing and delivering a piece to Louis XV now known as the ‘king’s desk’. He was appointed royal cabinet maker in 1774 and from then on supplied furniture on a regular basis to Marie-Antoinette. [Ed: Saulocin culminating in paran with his Venus indicates his artistic ability]. He died on 6 Jan 1806.





Paul Revere, Boston, Connecticut

Patriot, Revere is considered a folk hero of the American Revolution and is credited with raising the alarm on the night of 18 April 1775 that the British were coming. He was a silversmith by trade and is also known as one of America’s greatest artists in silver. [Ed: Bellatrix with his Mercury is both the craftsman as well as the messanger] He was also a skilled craftsman and made surgical instruments, spectacles and engraved copper plates. The most famous of these copper engravings portrayed the Boston massacre. Revere was a great supporter of the patriot cause and was involved in the 1773 ‘Boston Tea Party’ where a group of patriots, dressed in Indian garb, boarded an English ship and dumped its cargo of tea in protest of taxation without representation. He was the principal rider of the Boston Committee of Safety and on that fateful night in April, 1775, he rode to alert the surrounding countryside that the British were on the march. His timely warning alerted the patriots who were waiting for the British and engaged in the first battle of the American War for Independence at Lexington. After the war, he turned industrialist. He died on 10 May 1818.

Granville Sharp, Durham, United Kingdom

Abolitionist, Advocate for the abolition of slavery, Sharp entered government service in 1758. He became involved, in 1767, in a court case involving a slave, Jonathan Strong. The court ruled that a slave remained the property of his master even on English soil. Sharp embarked on a campaign to fight this judgement. He wrote pamphlets and articles and also fought it in the courts. In a later case, the court ruled that a slave becomes free the moment he sets foot on English soil. Sharp also supported the cause fo the American colonies, parliamentary reform, legislative independence for Ireland and also campaigned against the practice of the press-gang. [Ed: His constant pushing for justice is symbolised by Alphecca in paran with his Jupiter] He founded a society for the abolition of slavery. He died on 6 July 1813.

James Watt, Greenock, United Kingdom

Inventor, Scottish instrument maker and inventor whose steam engine contributed substantially to the Industrial Revolution. He was elected fellow of the Royal Society of London in 1785 A delicate child, Watt was taught for a time at home by his mother. An important part of his education was his father’s workshops, where, with his own tools, bench, and forge, he made models (e.g., of cranes and barrel organs) and grew familiar with ships’ instruments. Deciding at age 17 to be a mathematical-instrument maker, Watt first went to Glasgow, then, in 1755, to London, where he found a master to train him. Although his health broke down within a year, he had learned enough in that time ‘to work as well as most journeymen.’ Returning to Glasgow, he opened a shop in 1757 at the university and made mathematical instruments (e.g., quadrants, compasses, scales). There he met many scientists. In 1764 he married his cousin Margaret Miller, who, before she died nine years later, bore him six children. In 1764 Watt was repairing a model steam engine and was impressed by its waste of steam. In May 1765, after wrestling with the problem of improving it, he suddenly came upon a solution — the separate condenser, his first and greatest invention. [Ed His Jupiter in paran with Antares symbolising his inventive mind] In 1768 he entered into a partnership to develop and produce the engine and in 1769 he took out a patent. In 1776 the first engines were produced and installed in a colliery and a furnace. In that year he also married again. By 1790 Watt was a wealthy man. He died on 25 Aug 1819.

John Almon, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Political Writer, Almon was one of the major people involved with the struggle between press and Parliament for the right to publish reports of debates. In the early 1760s he was as Whig pamphleteer and a bookseller from whose London shop political publications were disseminated. At one stage via his reports in the ‘London Evening Post’, he was imprisoned for libel and at other times forced to leave the country. In the 1780s his printed attacks on William Pitt final brought his imprisonment for 14 months (1792-93) and he was forced to live the rest of his life on bail. He died in 1805.

Ethan Allen, Litchfield, Connecticut

Soldier, Leader, Allen spent his career trying to achieve independence for the Green Mountain area that is now the state of Vermont. From 1770 – 5 he commanded an irregular force called the Green Mountain Boys. At the outbreak of the War of Independence (1775 – 83) he helped take Fort Ticanderoga, in the first colonial victory of the war. On an expedition to Canada he was captured by the British at Montreal and held prisoner (1775-8). He continued the campaign for Vermont’s statehood, which was not achieved until after his death.

Arthur Phillip, Bath, United Kingdom

Admiral, Governor, Phillip headed the First Fleet which established the first permanent European settlement in Australia. he joined the navy in 1755 and retired in 1763 when he farmed for 13 years. He returned to sea serving in the British and Portuguese navies until 1786 when he was assigned to establish a penal settlement. He was the first governor of New South Wales and struggled with rebellion and famine. He successfully created a permanent settlement but was not so successful in establishing peace between the Aborigines and the settlers. Due to poor health, he returned to England in 1792 and was promoted to admiral in 1814. He died on 31 Aug 1814.

Sir William Herschel, Hannover, Niedersachsen, Germany

Astronomer, Herschell is best known as the discoverer of the planet Uranus but he also founded sidereal astronomy for the systematic observation of the heavens. Trained as a musician, he escaped Hanover when the city was occupied by the French in 1757. He went to England where he earned a living as a music teacher, performer and composer and by 1766 had gained a secure position as a chapel organist in Bath. He became interested in the heavens and soon his curiosity outgrew the telescopes available and he started to build his own. By 1781, the quality and magnifying power of his telescope was better than the ones at Greenwich and on 13 Mar 1781, during his third and most complete survey of the sky, he realised that the object he was looking at was not an ordinary star but the first planet discovered since pre-history. He was awarded the Copley medal by the Royal Society in 1782 and was appointed astronomer to George III. He did not marry until 8 May 1788. His sister Caroline was his constant companion recording his observations as well as doing the laborious calculations connected with his observations. Herschell died on 25 Aug 1822.

Marquis de Sade, Paris, France

Writer of Erotica, De Sade’s erotic writings gave rise to the term ‘sadism’. He was educated by an uncle and then, through aristocratic right, he took up a military appointment in 1754 which he left in 1763. He married that year and started a series of affairs as well as inviting prostitutes to his house and subjected them to sexual abuse. He was imprisoned for several weeks and on his release, resumed his debauched lifestyle. In 1768, he took a young prostitute home and subjected her to physical and sexual abuse for which he was again arrested and sentenced to prison where he served 4 years. On his release in 1772, he went to Marseilles where he again resumed the debaucheries but was found out and fled for his life but not before he was sentenced to death by default. He rejoined his wife and she became his accomplice in another round of abuses led to more scandal and he fled to Italy. On his return, he was again arrested in 1777 and thrown into prison where, to alleviate his boredom, he wrote sexually graphic novels and plays. He was committed to an asylum from which he was released in 1790. He was again sent to prison in 1801 and Napoleon personally saw to it that his freedom of movement was restricted. While in prison, de Sade organised the other prisoners to put on plays he had written. At his death, his son burnt all of his papers.[Ed: He is a good example of the more difficult side of Jupiter when in paran with Mirach]. [ED: His birth time has been set to predawn as these stars are more reflective of his life]. He died on 2 Dec 1814.

Joseph-Michel Montgolfier, Annonay, France

Balloonist, The elder of the Montgolfier brothers who together with his younger brother, Jacques-Etienne, was a pioneer in hot-air balloon design. They also made the first untethered flight. The brothers were two of 16 children of a prosperous paper merchant and maintained an active interest in scientific exploration. In 1782 they discovered that hot air trapped in a fabric bag caused the bag to rise into the air. A public demonstration of this discovery was carried out on 4 July 1783 in the town’s market place. The balloon travelled over a mile and the brothers repeated this experiment a few months later in Paris on 24 September 1783. They included a rooster, a sheep and a duck as passengers. This time the balloon rose and travelled over two miles. The first manned flight occurred on 21 Nov 1783 and the balloon travelled a distance of five and a half miles. [Ed: Arcturus in paran with his Jupiter giving success through bold endeavours as well as Phact in paran with his Mars which give him a love of these bold endeavours] Both brothers published papers on aerodynamics and were honoured by the French Academy of Sciences. Joseph also invented a calorimeter and the haydraulic ram. He died on 26 June 1810.

Benedict Arnold, Norwich, Connecticut

Soldier, Traitor, At the outbreak of the War of Independence – 1775 to 1783 – Arnold joined the colonial forces and assisted in the capture of Fort Ticonderoga in 1775. In the same year he took part in the unsuccessful siege of Quebec for which he was made a brigadier-general. He was greatly admired by Washington but in 1777 five of his inferiors in rank were promoted over his head.[Ed: Schedar in paran with his Sun gave him an appearance of respect or dignity]. In 1780 he obtained command of West Point which through a conspiracy he agreed to betray.[Ed His anger at his lack of promotion and his subsequent actions are symbolised by Antares in paran with his Saturn] He eventually fled to British lines and was given a command in the royal army. He went to England in 1781, living in London until his death in 1801.

Philip Astley, Newcastle under Lyme, United Kingdom

Equestrian, Circus manager, In 1770 at the age of 28, he started a circus at Lambeth, and built Astley’s Amphitheatre in 1798, once one of the sights of London. He died in 1814.

Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier, Paris, France

Scientist, Lavoisier is considered to be the father of modern chemistry. His major discoveries included oxygen and the composition of water and other organic compounds. He served as both scientist and public servant during the reign of Louis XVI but was later guillotined on 8 May 1794.

Edward Bancroft, Westfield, Massachusetts

Chemist, Spy, Bancroft was secretary to the American commissioners in France during the American Revolution who spied for the British.

Although he had no formal education, Bancroft assumed the title and style of ‘Doctor.’ In 1769 he established his credentials as a scientist with the publication of his ‘Essay on the Natural History of Guiana.’ About 1770 he went to England, where he became friendly with Benjamin Franklin during one of Franklin’s early missions to London. Bancroft became an adherent of the American cause and returned to the Colonies. As a result of his friendship with Franklin he accompanied Franklin and the two other American commissioners to France in 1776. In France Bancroft was contacted by Paul Wentworth, an American-born Loyalist who headed a ring of Loyalist spies for the British. By December of that year he had begun receiving a salary from the British. Between 1777 and 1783 he reported every movement of Franklin and the other Americans to the British, writing his reports in invisible ink and relaying them by means of a dead drop. Bancroft’s information included the details of treaties and the movement of ships and troops from France to America. To avoid suspicion Bancroft made several trips to Britain ostensibly to spy on the British; they provided him with harmless or false information and once pretended to arrest him. In 1783 Bancroft moved to England, primarily to preserve his British citizenship and the pension due him for his secret service. He continued to correspond with Franklin, who never suspected him. He invented several processes for dyeing textiles and in 1794 wrote a work called ‘Experimental Researches concerning the Philosophy of Permanent Colors.’ He gained international fame as a chemist and was made a fellow of the Royal Society. Not until nearly 70 years after his death in 1821 did his role as a British spy become public knowledge.

Abigail Adams, Weymouth, Massachusetts

Letter Writer, In 1764 she married John Adams, who worked away from home which prompted her to become a prolific letter writer. Her correspondence became highly valued as a contemporary source of social history and comment during the early days of the republic of the USA. Her husband became president of the USA in 1797 – 1801. [Ed: Her supportive nature is reflected in two star parans, Alkes with her Moon showing that she carries a message for the collective, via her letters, and secondly Dubhe with her Moon talking of her quiet support for her husband’s life, a common enough occurrence in that period however she is remembered for this support]

Jacques-Etienne Montgolfier, Annonay, France

Balloonist, The younger of the Montgolfier brothers who together with his older brother, Joseph-Michel, was a pioneer in hot-air balloon design. They also made the first untethered flight. The brothers were two of 16 children of a prosperous paper merchant and maintained an active interest in scientific exploration. In 1782 they discovered that hot air trapped in a fabric bag caused the bag to rise into the air. A public demonstration of this discovery was carried out on 4 July 1783 in the town’s market place. The balloon travelled over a mile and the brothers repeated this experiment a few months later in Paris on 24 September 1783. They included a rooster, a sheep and a duck as passengers. This time the balloon rose and travelled over two miles. The first manned flight occurred on 21 Nov 1783 and the balloon travelled a distance of five and a half miles. Both brothers published papers on aerodynamics and were honoured by the French Academy of Sciences. Etienne also developed a process for manufacturing vellum. He died on 2 Aug 1799.

Alessandro Volta, Como, Italy

Physicist, Italian physicist whose invention of the electric battery provided the first source of continuous current. In 1775 Volta’s interest in electricity led him to invent the electrophorus, a device used to generate static electricity. He became professor of physics at the Royal School of Como in 1774 and discovered and isolated methane gas in 1778. One year later he was appointed to the chair of physics at the University of Pavia. In 1780 Volta’s friend Luigi Galvani discovered that contact of two different metals with the muscle of a frog resulted in the generation of an electric current. Volta began experimenting in 1794 with metals alone and found that animal tissue was not needed to produce a current. This finding provoked much controversy between the animal-electricity adherents and the metallic-electricity advocates, but, with his demonstration of the first electric battery in 1800, victory was assured for Volta. In 1801 in Paris, he gave a demonstration of his battery’s generation of electric current before Napoleon, who made Volta a count and senator of the kingdom of Lombardy. The emperor of Austria made him director of the philosophical faculty at the University of Padua in 1815. The volt, a unit of the electromotive force that drives current, was named in his honour in 1881. He died on 5 March 1827.

Philippe Pinel, Tarn, France

Physician, Pinel pioneered the humane treatment of the mentally ill. He arrived in Paris in 1778 and supported himself by various means. He also started visiting the mentally ill and writing about his observations. In 1792 he became the chief physician at the Paris asylum for men. It was here where he undertook the first of his reforms that was to unchain his patients. [Ed: There are quiet a few compassionate stars in his chart but the one that gave him the courage of his convictions was Altair in paran with Jupiter and his compassion and ability to do something positive with his feelings is shown by Betelgeuse in paran to his Moon] He also discarded the belief that the mentally ill were demonically possessed. Instead he regarded mental illness as a result of excessive exposure to social and psychological stresses as well as hereditary or physiological damage. He also identified a number of psychoses as well as symptoms such as hallucinations and withdrawal. He did away with the traditional treatments of purging and bleeding and instead replaced them with a therapeutic regime that included friendly contact, discussion of personal difficulties and purposeful activities. [Ed:Apart from his other stars, his struggle for the rights of the disadvantage is reflected in his Mars in paran with Denebola]. He died on 25 Oct 1826.

Felix Maria Samaniego, Laguardia, Spain

Poet, Known for his book of fables for schoolchildren, his work is among the first poems children learn at school. Samaniego was born of an aristocratic Basque family. He travelled to France where the French Encyclopaedists heavily influenced him. On his return to Spain, he devoted his life to the welfare of fellow Basques. Joining the Basque Society, he was a teacher at the seminary and in 1781, composed Fabulas Morales [Morality Tales] for the students. They proved to be an instant success and were quickly adopted into the Spanish curriculum. The following year, a literary dispute with a colleague, Tomas de Iriarte, saw Samniego accused of a written attack which contained criticisms of the Church. He was imprisoned in a monastery until 1793. He died on 11 Aug 1801.

John Andre, London, United Kingdom

Soldier, Andre was a British soldier of French-Swiss descent. In 1774 he joined the army in Canada. When Benedict Arnold obtained the command of West Point in 1780, Andre was selected to negotiate with him for its betrayal. While returning to New York he was captured and handed over to the US military authorities. He was tried as a spy and hanged.

Aaron Arrowsmith,Durham, United Kingdom

Cartographer, In about 1770 he moved to London, and by 1790 has established a great map-making business.[Ed: His love of cartography and desire to record the world’s shapes for the benefit of others is reflected in his Sun in paran with Dubhe and Mercury with Zuben Elgenubi]. He died in 1823.

Johann Voss, Sommersdorf, Germany

Poet, Translator, German poet remembered chiefly for his translations of Homer. The son of a farmer, he went to Gottingen in 1772 where he studied theology (briefly) and philology. From 1778 to 1802 Voss was headmaster of schools, when he began to translate the Odyssey but he found the work uncongenial and became a private scholar. In 1805 he went to Heidelberg as professor of classical philology, devoting himself to his translations. Voss published his collected poems in 1802. Voss’s fame, however, rests on his translations. The Odyssey (1781) and Iliad (1793), particularly, achieved permanent importance. Goethe and other German poets regarded Voss as an authority on classical metres. The classical authors he translated included Virgil (1789 ff.), Ovid (1798), and Horace (1806). He also translated The Thousand and One Nights (1781-85) and, with his sons Heinrich and Abraham, Shakespeare’s plays (1818-29). He died on March 29, 1826.

Betsy Ross, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Seamstress, The seamstress who is said to have fashioned the first American flag. [Ed: This is a lovely example of Rukbat with her Moon as well as Saladmelek with Saturn. She did not intend for her needlework to have such an impact, but by her simple act she laid a foundation for a nation]. She was noted for her needlework even at a young age and when she married in 1773, she worked with her husband in his upholstery shop. She carried on the business after he was killed in 1776 while serving in the militia. The story of her involvement in the design of the American flag was based on an account given by her grandson. Ross was approached by George Washington to create a flag that would unite the nation as it declared its independence. Ross worked with Washington on a design and then fashioned the flag that was adopted by the Continental Congress on 14 June 1777 as the official flag of the United States. She died on 30 Jan 1836.

Simon Willard, Grafton, Massachusetts

Clockmaker, U.S. clockmaker, creator of the timepiece that came to be known as the banjo clock. Around 1780 Willard moved from Grafton, and worked there until his retirement in 1839. On Feb. 8, 1802, Willard patented a spring-driven, pendulum clock housed in a case having a round top portion bearing the dial, an elongated central portion curving inward, and a rectangular base. It is possible that the shape of the case inspired the term banjo clock, a name Willard did not use. Other items patented by Willard include a device for roasting meat, operated by a clock mechanism (1784), and an alarm clock (1819). Willard’s brother Benjamin (1743-1803) began manufacturing clocks in Grafton c. 1765 and was known for the quality of his tall-case clocks (a style later called grandfather clock). He died on 30 Aug 1848., [Ed His birth has be set to pre dawn as these stars are far more reflective of his life.]

Elisabeth Vigee-Lebrun, Paris, France

Painter, French painter, one of the most successful of all women artists, particularly noted for her portraits of women. Her father was a pastel portraitist and her first teacher. Her great opportunity came in 1779 when she was summoned to Versailles to paint a portrait of Queen Marie-Antoinette. The two women became friends, and in subsequent years Vigee-Lebrun painted at least 25 portraits of Marie-Antoinette in a great variety of poses and costumes; a number of these may be seen in the museum at Versailles. On the outbreak of the Revolution in 1789, she left France and for 12 years travelled abroad, painting portraits and playing a leading role in society. In 1801 she returned to Paris but, disliking Parisian social life under Napoleon, soon left for London, where she painted portraits of the court and of Lord Byron. Later she went to Switzerland (and painted a portrait of Mme de Stael) and then again (c. 1810) to Paris, where she ceased painting. Vigee-Lebrun was a woman of much wit and charm, and her memoirs, Souvenirs de ma vie (1835-37; ‘Reminiscences of My Life’), provide a lively account of her times as well as of her own work. During her career, according to her own account, she painted 877 pictures, including 622 portraits and about 200 landscapes. She died on 30 March 1842 in Paris.

Oliver Evans, Newport, Delaware

Inventor, Evans pioneered the use of the high-pressured steam engine and created the first fully operational production line. He was apprenticed to a wheelwright at 16 and through observation, started to investigate how steam could be used for industrial production. In 1784 he tackled the problem of production in a mill by creating a continuous production line that was entirely automated. The only labour needed was to set the mill in motion. By the 1790’s he also had steam engines employed in sawmills, grain mills, dredging and drilling. He also developed a self-propelled steam vehicle. Most of his ideas were not adopted until many years after his death on 15 April 1819.

Marie-Antoinette, Vienna, Austria

Queen and consort to Louis XVI of France, she contributed to the unrest which culminated in the French Revolution and her execution. She was married in 1770 to Louis, who proved to be an inattentive husband. When he succeeded to the throne in 1774, she had withdrawn to her own exclusive circle. Her association with some of the more dissipated members of the Court became the source of many rumours. The most scandalous was the Affair of the Diamond Necklace in 1785 where it was purported that she had had an immoral relationship with an archbishop. Although untrue, the scandal discredited the monarchy and caused the nobles to oppose the financial reforms advocated by the Crown. After the storming of the Bastille on 14 July 1789, she persuaded Louis to stand up to the revolutionaries. As a result, she became the main target. Her plans to re-establish order through a series of intrigues which involved the Austrians finally led to the overthrow of the monarchy on 10 Aug 1792. She was imprisoned and on 16 Oct 1793 was guillotined.

John McAdam,Ayr, United Kingdom

Inventor, McAdam is known as the inventor of the macadam road surface. He went to New York in 1770 where he worked for an uncle in a counting house and thirteen years later in 1783, retired to Scotland having made a small fortune. He purchased an estate and observed the poor condition of the road surfaces in the area. He experimented with roadmaking, continuing his experiments in Cornwall where he moved to in 1798. In 1815, he was appointed surveyor general of Bristol roads and he put his theories into practice. He published two works one in 1816 and the other in 1819, documenting his theories and his work. In 1823 a parliamentary enquiry into road building adopted his system of raising roads above adjacent ground, laying a foundation of rocks, topping this with stone and binding it with gravel. He was appointed Surveyor General of Metropolitan Roads in 1827. He died on 26 Nov 1836.

George Vancouver, Norfolk, England

Navigator, English navigator who, with great precision, completed one of the most difficult surveys ever undertaken, that of the Pacific coast of North America, from the vicinity of San Francisco northward to present-day British Columbia. At that time he verified that no continuous channel exists between the Pacific Ocean and Hudson Bay, in northeast Canada. [Ed: Saturn in paran with Castor shows his skills as a cartographer].

Vancouver entered the Royal Navy at age 13 and accompanied Captain James Cook on his second and third voyages (1772-75 and 1776-80). He took command of the expedition to the northwest coast of North America departing from England on April 1, 1791, he went by way of the Cape of Good Hope to Australia, where he surveyed part of the southwest coast. After stops at Tahiti and the Hawaiian Islands, Vancouver sighted the west coast of North America at 39 27′ N on April 17, 1792. Continuing his coastal exploration in April 1793, he surveyed north to 56 44′ N and south to below San Luis Obispo, Calif. In 1794 he sailed to Cook’s Inlet, off southern Alaska, and, after a fresh survey of much of the coast north of San Francisco, sailed homeward via Cape Horn, reaching England on Oct. 20, 1794. His Voyage of Discovery to the North Pacific Ocean and round the World . . . 1790-95, three volumes with an atlas of maps and plates, was published in 1798. He died 10 May 1798.

Horatio Nelson, Norfolk, England

Naval Commander,Known for his courageous victories especially at the Battle of Trafalgar which ensured the safety of Britain from invasion. Nelson was from a family of genteel but impoverished folk and when his mother died he was sent to sea. He became a lieutenant in 1777 and was promoted to captain in 1779. In 1784 he went to the West Indies where he enforced an embargo on British trade with the newly independent American colonies. There he met and married the widow Frances Nesbit in 1787. After returning to England, he was unemployed for 5 years and then within days of the execution of Louis XIV in 1793, he was given command of a ship and ordered to fight the Revolutionaries who numbered among them one Napoleon Bonaparte. A year later he was to embark on a long lasting love affair with Lady Emma Hamilton. Nelson became a celebrated hero after first defeat of the Spanish and the French at Cape St Vincent and at the Battle of the Nile. During his service to the Royal Navy he also brought in many reforms to ensure the health and wellbeing of the ship crews. [Ed: Dubhe in paran with his Venus showing his concern for the wellbeing of others, as well as Markab in paran with his Moon, showing his consistency in his concern. In addition, Zuben Elgenubi with his Mars shows his desire to take action to improve the lives of the average sailor] On 21 Oct 1805 at the Battle of Trafalgar, Nelson received a sniper wound to the chest and died of his wounds. He was immortalised by the British by Nelson’s column in Trafalgar in central London. [Ed: Sirius in paran to his Sun giving him immortality through the loss of his own mortal flesh].

Wilhelm Olbers, Bremen, Bremen, Germany

Astronomer, Olbers is best remembered as the discoverer of the asteroids Pallas and Vesta as well as several comets. In 1779 he devised a different method of calculating the orbits of the planets. Trained as a physician, he opened his practice in 1781 and also equipped the upper portion of his house as an observatory. He took a leading role in the search for a planet between Mars and Jupiter and when Ceres was discovered and then ‘lost’, he rediscovered the asteroid a year later. In 1802 he discovered Pallas and became convinced that asteroids were the remains of a planet which had once orbited the asteroid belt but had since broken up. In 1811 he formed the theory that the tail of a comet always points away from the Sun. In 1815 he discovered what is now known as Olber’s comet. He died on 2 Mar 1840.

Mary Wollstonecraft, London, United Kingdom

Writer, Reformer, English writer, noted as a passionate advocate of educational and social equality for women. Her early Thoughts on the Education of Daughters (1787) foreshadowed her mature work on woman’s place in society, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792). Wollstonecraft worked for the London publisher James Johnson, but in 1792 she left England to observe the French Revolution in Paris, where she passed as the wife of an American, Captain Gilbert Imlay. In the spring of 1794 she gave birth to a daughter, Fanny. The following year, distraught over the breakdown of her relationship with Imlay, she attempted suicide. She returned to London to work again for Johnson and became one of the influential radical group which included William Godwin, Thomas Paine, Thomas Holcroft, William Blake, and, after 1793, William Wordsworth. In 1796 she began a liaison with Godwin, and on March 29, 1797, Mary being pregnant, they were married. The marriage was happy but brief; Mary Wollstonecraft died 11 days after the birth of her second daughter, Mary on 10 Sept 1797. (Ed: Her passion for women’s rights and intensity of her opinions can be explained by Algol culminating while in paran with her Moon as well as her devotion to a minority group, long before women’s rights were even considered is a reflection of Saturn in paran with Zosma).

William Wilberforce, Hull, United Kingdom

Politician, Abolitionist, British politician and philanthropist who from 1787 was prominent in the struggle to abolish the slave trade and then to abolish slavery itself in British overseas possessions. In 1780 both he and Pitt entered the House of Commons, and he soon began to support parliamentary reform and Roman Catholic political emancipation, acquiring a reputation for radicalism (Jupiter with Aculeus). Wilberforce’s abolitionism was derived in part from evangelical Christianity, to which he was converted in 1784-85. In 1787 he helped to found a society for the ‘reformation of manners’ called the Proclamation Society (to suppress the publication of obscenity) and the Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade–the latter more commonly called the Anti-Slavery Society. He achieved his first success on March 25, 1807, when a bill to abolish the slave trade in the British West Indies became law. This statute, however, did not change the legal position of persons enslaved before its enactment. In 1823 he aided in organizing and became a vice president of the Society for the Mitigation and Gradual Abolition of Slavery Throughout the British Dominions–again, more commonly called the Anti-Slavery Society. He retired from the House of Commons in 1825; the Slavery Abolition Act he had sought was passed one month after his death which was on 29 July 1833.

Deborah Sampson, Plympton, Massachusetts

Soldier, Deborah Sampson was a US soldier and the first female lecturer in the country. She was an indentured servant for most of her childhood and then decided to join the American War of Revolution as a soldier. She assumed a man’s identity, Robert Shurtleff and enlisted in the 4th Massachusettes Regiment in 1782. Fellow soldiers nicknamed her ‘Molly’ because of her beardless features, but seemed to accept her in their midst. She received several wounds in a number of skirmishes and a bout with fever finally unmasked her. She was discharged in 1783. A year later she married and was awarded a small pension by the US Congress. She embarked on a lecture tour detailing her experiences wearing a soldier’s uniform. She was the first woman to lecture professionally in the US. In 1838, Congress passed an act awarding her descendants a full military pension. [Ed: In many ways her life expresses the paran of Denebola culminating as Saturn was on the nadir; always seeking the different or alternative life]. She died on 29 April 1827.

Daniel Mendoza, London, United Kingdom

Boxer, Mendoza was the first Jewish heavyweight fighter and the first to combine scientific boxing with rapid punches as opposed to the heavy and hard punches used up to then. [Ed: An interesting expression of Saladmelek with his Mercury]. He relied on his courage and physical condition and his revolutionary boxing skill to overcome opponents. He was declared the best heavy weight in England in 1791 but lost the title and retired in 1795. [His life is well expressed by Mirfak, the male warrior star, in paran with his Saturn as well as his Sun]. He died on 3 Sep 1836.

Franz Baader,Munich, Germany

Mystical Theologian, Roman Catholic layman who became an influential mystical theologian and ecumenicist. He abandoning a profitable career as a mining engineer in 1820, he turned his attention to a study of politics and religion. His earlier efforts to achieve ecumenical and political unity contributed to the formation in 1815 of the Holy Alliance, a security pact among Russia, Austria, Prussia, and France. This alliance sought to inaugurate a community of Christian nations resolved to prevent the recurrence of large-scale conflicts. Although the alliance eventually failed, Baader has subsequently been considered one of the founders of modern ecumenical activity. [Ed Scheat in paran with his Jupiter which is exalted in his natal chart].In 1826 he was appointed professor of philosophy and speculative theology at the new University of Munich. Baader’s mystical philosophy, often expressed through obscure aphorisms and symbols, sought to correlate the realm of reason with the realms of authority and revelation.

Eli Whitney, Westborough, Massachusetts

Engineer, Inventor, American inventor, mechanical engineer, and manufacturer, best remembered as the inventor of the cotton gin but most important for developing the concept of mass-production of interchangeable parts. In 1789 Whitney entered Yale College, where he learned many of the new concepts and experiments in science and the applied arts. After graduation in the fall of 1792, he was disappointed twice in promised teaching posts. The second offer was in Georgia, where, stranded, without employment, short of cash, and far from home, he was befriended by one Catherine Greene. Phineas Miller, managed Greene’s splendid plantation. Miller and Whitney became friends. Whitney saw that a machine to clean the green-seed cotton could make the South prosperous and its inventor rich. He set to work. After perfecting his machine he secured a patent (1794), and he and Miller went into business manufacturing and servicing the new gins. However, the unwillingness of the planters to pay the service costs and the ease with which the gins could be pirated put the partners out of business by 1797. The planters’ ability to defeat lawsuits brought by Whitney for infringement of patent rights and their mounting wealth apparently induced a sense of guilt and in 1802 the state of South Carolina agreed to pay $50,000, half the sum asked by Miller & Whitney for the patent rights. This was followed by settlements in other states. When Congress refused to renew the patent, which expired in 1807, Whitney concluded that ‘an invention can be so valuable as to be worthless to the inventor.’ [Ed Thuban with his Mars shows his battle in defending his property]. He never patented his later inventions, one of which was a milling machine. He redirected his mechanical and entrepreneurial talents to other projects. In 1797 the government, solicited 40,000 muskets from private contractors because the two national armouries had produced only 1,000 muskets in three years. All armouries used the conventional method whereby a skilled workman fashioned a complete musket, forming and fitting each part. Thus, each weapon was unique; if a part broke, its replacement had to be especially made. Whitney broke with this tradition with a plan to supply 10,000 muskets in two years. He designed machine tools by which an unskilled workman made only a particular part that conformed precisely, as precision was then measured, to a model. The sum of such parts was a musket. Any part would fit any musket of that design. He had grasped the concept of interchangeable parts. It took over 10 years passed while he struggled against unforeseen obstacles, to create a new system of production. Finally, he overcame most of the scepticism in 1801, when he demonstrated the result of his system: from piles of disassembled muskets he picked parts at random and assembled complete muskets. This was the inauguration of the American system of mass production. In 1817 Whitney married Henrietta Edwards, granddaughter of Jonathan Edwards. Of his four children, three survived, including Eli Whitney, Jr., who continued his father’s arms manufactory in Hamden, Conn. Whitney died on 8 Jan 1825.

Charles Macintosh,Glasgow, United Kingdom

Chemist, Inventor, Macintosh is best known for his invention of a method to waterproof garments by using rubber dissolved in coal tar and used naphtha to cement together two pieces of material. Macintosh discovered this in 1823 and started producing the waterproof fabric, graduating to items of clothing. These came to be known as Macintosh. He died on 25 Jul 1843.

Charlotte Corday, Seez, France

Assasin, Corday assassinated the French Revolutionary, Jean Paul Marat. Of noble birth, she was a Royalist but was also caught up with the events of the day. She went to Paris to work for the Girondin cause after their expulsion. Knowing that Marat’s newspaper had a big influence on the masses, she sought and was given an interview with him while he lay in his bath. During the interview as he assurred her that the dissidents she named would be guillotined, she drew a knife and stabbed him. Corday was arrested, tried and convicted of the crime and was guillotined on 17 Jul 1793.

Andre-Jacques Garnerin, Paris, France

Aeronaut, Garnerin is known as the first person to use a parachute regularly and successfully. He perfected the parachute jump and demonstrated its uses throughout Europe and England. He became an Army inspector in 1793 and he encouraged the use of balloons for military purposes. Captured by the English, he was imprisoned for two years. On his release and return to France, he began to give demonstrations of hot air balloons. He gave his first parachute demonstartion when he jumped from 3,200 feet in 1797. He continued these exhibitions and his most spectacular jump was done in England from 8,000 feet in 1802. He died on 18 Aug 1823.

Arthur 1st Duke of Wellington, Dublin, Dublin, Ireland

Military commander, British Army commander during the Napoleonic Wars and later Prime Minister of Britain (1828-30). At the age of 18 he was commissioned in the army. In 1790-97 he held the family seat of Trim in the Irish Parliament. At 24, though in debt, he proposed to Catherine (Kitty) Pakenham but was rejected (later he married her in 1806) Arthur abandoned heavy gambling to concentrate on his profession. He was posted to India in 1796. He first rose to prominence in India, won successes in the Peninsular War in Spain (1808-14) and shared in the victory over Napoleon at Waterloo (1815). In 1787.[Ed: Mirfak in paran with his Jupiter showing his military successes]. He died 14 Sept 1852.

Anne Newport Royall, Baltimore, Maryland

Traveller, Writer, She was considered to be the first American newspaperwoman.[Ed: Ras Alhague in paran with her Sun gives her an interest in the stories of events and people]. Royall married in 1797 but was widowed in 1813. In her 50’s, with no money, she travelled through the USA, publishing accounts of her travels. Her writing was incisive as well as caustic and in 1829 she was tried for being ‘a common scold’. In 1831, she started a newspaper, followed by several others in which she crusaded against government corruption and incompetence. Her newspapers also promoted state’s rights and tolerance of Catholics and masons as well as a Sunday mail service. Her reputation was based on her outspoken and often controversial views. [Ed Denebola culuminating with her Venus gives her a determination to challenge or change the social order]. In addition to her travel and journalistic writing, she also wrote a novel and a play. She died on 1 Oct 1854.

Napoleon Bonaparte, Ajaccio, France</p>

General, Known as ‘The Little Corporal’, Napoleon revolutionised military organisation and training as well as sponsoring the Napoleonic Code which became the basis for later civil law codes. Born in Corsica, he was educated in France and entered the army in 1785. He fought during the French Revolution and was promoted to brigadier-general in 1793. He succeeded to commander in chief of the army and as a result of a coup in 1799, he came to power and instituted a military dictatorship. He made numerous reforms in education, the military and civil law. [Menkar with Jupiter as well as Rukbat with his Sun, showing that he was building a foundation on which future generations could build]. He defeated the Austrians in 1800 and went to war against the British in 1803 and by 1810 had successfully consolidated most of Europe into his empire. His downfall began with the invasion of Russia in 1812 and his abdication and exile to Elba in 1814. In 1815 he returned to France and marshalled a force and was defeated at Waterloo on 18 June 1815. He abdicated a second time and was exiled to St Helena where he died on 5 May 1821.

Mathew Flinders, Donington, United Kingdom

Navigator, Flinders was responsible for charting a large portion of the Australian coastline. He entered the Royal Navy in 1789 and became a navigator. He sailed to Australia in 1795 and explored and charted much of the mainland and the island of Tasmania. He returned to Australia in 1801, continuing his exploration and circumnavigated the continent, reaching Port Jackson on 9 June 1803. Later that year, on a return voyage to England, his ship was forced to land on Mauritius due to it needing repairs. Flinders was detained by the French and was not allowed to leave until 1810. His book, ‘Voyage to Terra Australis’ was published shortly before he died on 19th July 1814.

Walter Savage Landor, Warwick, Warwickshire, United Kingdom

Writer, Landor is best remembered for his work, ‘Imaginary Conversations’, a collection of imagined interchanges between famous people in history. He was educated at Rugby and Oxford but left because of disagreements with the authorities. He spent his entire life quarrelling with his father, his neighbours, his wife and any authority whom he thought had offended him. He was also warm and generous and it was this that won him the friendship of many of his contemporaries that included Lamb, Dickes, Coleridge, Browning and many others. He was a gifted scholar. The first volume of ‘Imaginary Conversations’ appeared in 1824, the second in 1828 and then sporadically until 1853. He died on 17 Sep 1864.

Charles Lamb, London, United Kingdom

Poet, Critic, Lamb is best known for his essays written under the pseudonym ‘Elia’. He was an avid reader as a child and went to school at 7 in 1882 and left in 1889. A good scholar, many believed he would have taken holy orders if not for his stutter. Instead, he found work at India House where he was employed until he retired in 1825. In 1796, Lamb’s sister Mary, in a fit of madness killed their mother. Lamb then took on the responsibility of his sister who had recurring fits of madness throughout her life. He dedicated his life to her and she, in return was his devoted companion. His work first appeared in print in 1796. In 1807, Lamb and his sister collaborated on a work that retold the plays of Shakespeare for children. The following year they worked on a similar treatment for a version of the ‘Odyssey’ and again in 1809 a collection of stories from the English countryside. In 1820 Lamb started contributing a series of essays to ‘The London Magazine’. These essays were published under the pseudonym ‘Elia’ and made him famous. They appeared in a separate volume in 1822 with a second series in 1833. When Lamb retired, his sister’s condition worsened and they moved to Edmonton. This resulted in separation from his life long friends and his heavy drinking became even more pronounced. He died on 27 Dec 1834 as a result of complications to a wound suffered in a fall.

Francois Vidocq, Arras, France

Detective, Adventurer and detective who helped create the police de surete (‘security police’) in France. A venturesome, sometimes rash youth, Vidocq had bright beginnings in the army, fighting in the Battles of Valmy and Jemappes in 1792. After having spent several periods in prison, mostly for petty offences, and having tried his hand at a number of trades, he offered his services to the state in 1809 and created a new police department under Napoleon. [Ed Alkes rising with his Saturn]. His experience of life among thieves in Arras, Paris, and the provinces contributed to the effectiveness of the security brigade. He resigned in 1827 to start a paper and cardboard mill, where he employed former convicts. The business was a failure, and in Louis-Philippe’s reign he again became chief of the detective department. Dismissed in 1832 for a theft that he allegedly organized, Vidocq created a private police agency, the prototype of modern detective agencies. The authorities however, soon suppressed it. Known all over France as a remarkably audacious man, Vidocq was a friend of such authors as Victor Hugo, Honore de Balzac, Eugene Sue, and Alexandre Dumas pere. Several works were published under Vidocq’s name, but it is doubtful that he wrote any of them. The figure of Vidocq is believed to have inspired Balzac’s creation of the criminal genius Vautrin, one of the most vivid characters to appear in his novelistic series La Comedie humaine (The Human Comedy). He died on 11. May 1857.

Jane Austen,Selborne, United Kingdom

Novelist, Jane Austen spent the first 25 years of her life in Hampshire,UK where he father was a rector. The fifth of a family of seven she began writing for the family amusement as a child. ‘Love and Friendship’ (published in 1922) dates from this period. Her work applied common sense to apparently melodramatic situations – a technique she later developed in evaluating ordinary human behaviour. Of her six great novels, four were published anonymously during her lifetime and two under her signature posthumously. She died in 1817.

Peter Mark Roget, London, United Kingdom

Philologist, Roget is best known for his work ‘Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases’, which classified synonyms or verbal equivalents and is still popular today. He trained originally as a doctor and practiced in London between 1808 and 1840. He began work on his ‘Thesaurus’ on his sixty-first birthday and completed it on his seventy-third one. Although the work was the product of his retirement, it was based on a system of verbal classifications he began in 1805. He died on 12 Sep 1869. [Ed: Mirfak on his Nadir in paran with Mercury, shows his love of a mental challenge].

Clement Clarke Moore, New York, New York

Poet,Moore was a scholar but is best remembered for his poem ‘Twas the night before Christmas..’ He was the son of a reverend and maintained a lifelong interest in church mattters. He was a professor of Oriental and Greek literature and composed the poem to amuse his children in December 1822. A house guest copied the poem and gave it to a newspaper and it was first published anonymously on 23 Dec 1823.

Francis Scott Key, Frederick, Maryland

Author, Scott Key is best known as the author of the US national anthem ‘The Star Spangled Banner’. During the War of 1812, he was witness to battle of Fort McHenry on 13 -14 Sep 1814 and he wrote the a poem commemorating the successful defense of Baltimore against the British. It was published by a newspaper several days later on 20 Sep. It was then set to the tune of an English drinking song ‘To Anacreon in Heaven’. Both the army and navy adopted the anthem but it was not until 1931 that Congress adopted it as the national anthem. Scott Key died on 11 Jan 1843.

Saint Madeleine Barat, Joigny, France

Saint, Founder, Barat was canonized 1925; and her feast day is May 25 She was a nun and founder of the Society of the Sacred Heart.

Born of peasant stock, Madeleine was expertly tutored by her brother Louis, deacon and master. After the French Revolution, she went to Paris with Louis, who had become a priest. His superior, Joseph Varin, appointed Madeleine to head an educational order dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus. She made her first consecration in 1800. In 1801 the first Convent of the Sacred Heart was opened at Amiens, Fr., and she became superior in 1802.

In 1804 Madeleine journeyed to Grenoble, Fr., to found her second convent and to receive into the order Blessed Rose Philippine Duchesne, its first missionary. In 1806 Madeleine was elected superior general of the Sacred Heart order for life, and in 1815 the constitutions and rules of the order, drafted with Varin’s help, were adopted. The Society of the Sacred Heart received ecclesiastical approval in 1826. During her lifetime the order spread from France to 11 other countries of Europe, Algeria, and North and South America. Under her guidance remarkable uniformity was established among the convents. She died in 1865. (Ed: Her life is described by the mystical Alcyone in paran with her Saturn).

Piet Retief, Wellington, South Africa

Leader, Retief was one of the Boer leaders of the Great Trek. This was the mass migration of Boers who sought independence from British rule in South Africa. They set out to colonise the interior of the continent. He was better educated than his companions and was both a farmer and a building contractor. In 1914 he moved to the frontier of the Cape Colony where he established a reputation as a field commandant in frontier wars. He also served as spokesperson for the Boer settlers of the area. He represented their grievances against the tribal peoples. However, most Boers felt they were discriminated against as judgements seemed to favour the tribes people. They decided to trek to the interior. In February 1837 Retief issued a historic proclamation in which he outlined the Boer’s reasons for leaving the colony. The group eventually joined up with other trekkers and Retief was elected Governor and in October, 1837, under his leadership, the Boer’s crossed into their ‘promised land’, Natal. [Ed: Facies with his Venus showing his ruthless approach to solving social problems]. He attempted to negotiate an agreement with the Zulu king who insisted that before any agreement could be signed, the Boers would have to assist him in recovering some stolen cattle. Having performed the task, Retief and his party returned to the king’s kraal where they were murdered at a feast given in their honour. He died on 6 Feb 1838.

Achimn von Arnim, Berlin, Berlin, Germany

Writer, Writer of fantastic but original romances. He stirred up a warm sympathy for old popular poetry, and published over 20 volumes, mainly tales and novels, including a folk-song collection. He died in 1831.

Rene Laennec, Quimper, France

Physician, Laennec invented the stethoscope and is considered the founder of chest medicine. Using a wooden cyclinder, he listened to patient’s chests and correlated the sounds he heard with diseases found in autopsies. He published his methods and findings in 1819 ‘On Medical Auscultation’. He was appointed professor at the College de France in 1822 and physician at the Hopital de la Charite in 1823. He died on 13 Aug 1826.

George Stephenson, Northumberland, United Kingdom

Engineer, English engineer and principal inventor of the railroad locomotive. The son of a mechanic, Stephenson went to work at an early age and without formal schooling; by the age of 19 he was operating a Newcomen engine. His curiosity aroused by the Napoleonic war news, he enrolled in night school and learned to read and write. [Ed: Bellatrix in paran with his Sun indicating that he has to struggle for his success] He soon married and, in order to earn extra income, learned to repair shoes, fix clocks, and cut clothes for miners’ wives, getting a mechanic friend, the future Sir William Fairbairn, to take over his engine part-time. His genius with steam engines, however, presently won him the post of engine wright (chief mechanic) at Killingworth colliery. In 1813 George Stephenson visited a neighbouring colliery to examine a ‘steam boiler on wheels’ constructed by John Blenkinsop to haul coal out of the mines. He thought he could do better and he built the Blucher, an engine that drew eight loaded wagons carrying 30 tons of coal at 4 miles (6 km) per hour. Not satisfied, he sought to improve his locomotive’s power and introduced the ‘steam blast,’ by which exhaust steam was redirected up the chimney, pulling air after it and increasing the draft. The new design made the locomotive truly practical. On Sept. 27, 1825, railroad transportation was born when the first public passenger train, pulled by Stephenson’s Active (later renamed Locomotion), ran from Darlington to Stockton, carrying 450 persons at 15 miles (24 km) per hour. He went on to be the chief guide of railway development at home and abroad. He died on 12 Aug 1848.

Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, Port Morant, Jamaica

Administrator, Raffles was the founder of Singapore and responsible for the creation of Britain’s Far East empire. He was born at sea, off the coast of Jamaica as his parents, impoverished merchants, made their way back to England. He entered the service of the East India Company at 14 and although he had little formal education, he expanded his knowledge of science and languages. He rose to prominence and by 23 was appointed assistant secretary in Penang. He made a thorough study of the language, history and culture of the Malay peoples he was promoted again and appointed lieutenant governor of Java in 1811. But falling out of favour, he returned to England. In 1818, travelling to India, he convinced the then governor general of India that only decisive action to establish a fort in the Straits of Malacca could safeguard British trade in the Far East. [Ed: A reflection of Altair in paran with his Mars] With the governor’s authority, he sailed to a small island on 29 Jan 1819 established by treaty the port of Singapore. He died on 5 July 1826.

William Sturgeon, Whittington, Shropshire, United Kingdom

Engineer, Inventor, English electrical engineer who devised the first electromagnet capable of supporting more than its own weight. This device led to the invention of the telegraph, the electric motor, and numerous other devices basic to modern technology. Sturgeon, self-educated in electrical phenomena and natural science, spent much time lecturing and conducting electrical experiments. In 1824 he became lecturer in science at the Royal Military College, and the following year he exhibited his first electromagnet. Sturgeon built an electric motor in 1832 and invented the commutator, an integral part of most modern electric motors. In 1836, the year he founded the monthly journal Annals of Electricity, he invented the first suspended coil galvanometer, a device for measuring current. He also improved the voltaic battery and worked on the theory of thermoelectricity. From more than 500 kite observations he established that in serene weather the atmosphere is invariably charged positively with respect to the Earth, becoming more positive with increasing altitude. He died on 4 Dec 1850.

Betta von Arnim, Frankfurt am Main, Germany

Writer, One of the outstanding women writers in modern German literature, memorable not only for her books but also for the personality they reflect. All of her writings, whatever their ostensible themes, are essentially self-portraits. She was a Romantic par excellence. Unconventional to the point of eccentricity; wayward yet a loyal wife and a devoted mother to her seven children; susceptible and passionate, but jealous of her personal freedom: capable of enthusiastic devotion, yet absorbed in a cult of her own personality that verged in narcissism. She died in 1859

John James Audubon, Les Cayes, Haiti

Ornithologist, Bird Artist, Born in Haiti he was sent to the USA in 1804 to look after his father’s property in Philadelphia. Here he spent several years seeking out every species of bird in America in order to catalogue them. In 1826, aged 41, he took his work to Europe, where he cultivated a rugged backwoodsman image that went down well with fashionable society. In 1827 he published the first of the 87 portfolios of his massive ‘Birds of America’ follow later by seven more such volumes. The National Audubon Society, dedicated to the conservation of birds in the USA, was founded in his honour in 1866. He died in 1851.

Seth Thomas, Wolcott, Connecticut

Manufacturer, Thomas was a pioneer in the mass production of clocks. He was apprenticed as a carpenter and joiner and in 1807, because of the quality of his woodworking skills, he was invited to join a clock making enterprise. {Ed: Polaris with his Saturn giving him a strong desire to focus on one type of work and to make a reputation in that field]. In 1812, having bought out one partner, he sold his interest to the other partner and opened his own factory. Thomas purchased the rights to manufacture the shelf clock originated by a previous partner and developed a mill to produce the brass wire needed. He died on 29 Jan 1859.

Giovanni Amici, Modena, Italy

Optician, astronomer, natural, Amici constructed optical instruments, perfecting his own alloy for telescope mirrors, and in 1827 produced the dioptric, achromatic microscope that bears his name.

Maria Hrabina Walewska, Brodnica, Poland

Mistress, Polish mistress of Napoleon Boanparte, whom he met in Poland in 1806, Paris and finally Elba. [Her Venus in paran with Pollux showing her willingness to live an alternative lifestyle as Napoleon’s mistress]. She sought to influence his eastern European policy and to move him to create the Grand Duchy of Warsaw. On 4 May 1810, she bore him a son. She was married twice – in 1804 to a Polish count and in 1816 to a French general, formerly one of Napoleon’s closes aides. She died 15 Dec 1817.

Georg Ohm, Erlangen, Germany

Physicist, Ohm discovered the law which states that the current flow through a conductor is directly proportional to the voltage and inversely proportional to the resistance. This became known as ‘Ohm’s Law’. The physical unit of measuring electrical resistance was also named after him. He became professor of mathematics in Cologne in 1817. He published his findings extensively but while his work was influential in the development of the theory and use of electricity, it was coldy received. Hurt, he resigned from his post and went to Nuremburg in 1833. Recognition came in 1841 when he was awarded the Copley Medal by the Royal Society of London and gained foreign membership a year later. Ohm died on 7 July 1854.

Christian Thomsen, Copenhagen, Denmark

Archeologist, Thomsen developed the the three part system of labelling pre-history. He named the Stone, Bronze and Iron Ages after the stages of human technological developement on the European continent. His system brought order and established a basis for other chronological systems. He served as curator of the National Museum of Denmark between 1816 to 1865 and arrived at his labelling system as a result of classifying and arranging the museum’s collections of antiquities. The system was first published in 1836. Thomsen died on 21 May 1865.

George Angas, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom

Shipowner, Colonist, George Angas is regarded as a founder of South Australia, He was appointed commissioner for the formation of the colony in 1834 and emigrated to Adelaide in 1851. He died in 1879.

Michael Faraday,Newington, United Kingdom

Physicist, Faraday is credited with the discovery and understanding of electromagnetism. Originally trained as a bookseller and bookbinder, he was appointed at age 21 as assistant to a noted English chemist, Humphry Davy. In 1821 he discovered the principle of the electric motor and proceeded to build a model. He was convinced that there was a connection between electricity and magnetism and discovered electromagnetism where an electric current is produced as a result of a change in magnetic intensity. He married in 1821 and retired a few years later. He died on 25 Aug 1867.

Charles Babbage, Devon, United Kingdom

Mathematician, Babbage was a mathematician and inventor who is credited with having conceived the first automatic digital computer.

The idea of mechanically calculating mathematical tables first came to Babbage in 1812 or 1813. Later he made a small calculator that could perform certain mathematical computations to eight decimals. Then in 1823 he obtained government support for the design of a projected machine with a 20-decimal capacity. During the mid-1830s Babbage developed plans for the so-called analytical engine, the forerunner of the modern digital computer. The analytical engine, however, was never completed. Babbage’s design was forgotten until his unpublished notebooks were discovered in 1937. Babbage made notable contributions in other areas as well. He assisted in establishing the modern postal system in England and compiled the first reliable actuarial tables. He also invented a type of speedometer and the locomotive cowcatcher. He died in 1871.

Joseph Sturge, Gloucester, United Kingdom

Philantropist, Pacifist, Regor, Quaker pacifist, and political reformer who was most important as a leader of the antislavery movement. A prosperous grain dealer, he visited the West Indies (1836-37) to learn the effects of the statute of Aug. 28, 1833, that abolished slavery de jure in the British colonies but substituted an easily abused ‘apprenticeship’ system. In 1837 he published his evidence of the continued ill treatment of Negroes and testified on the subject before the House of Commons. Full abolition for the British West Indies was enacted on May 23, 1838; afterward, Sturge worked for worldwide abolition through the British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society. In 1841 he toured the Southern slave states of the United States with the New England poet and Abolitionist John Greenleaf Whittier. [Ed; Sturges bravery in taking this stand is expressed by Altair in paran with his Saturn] Sturge devoted himself to securing the extension of suffrage and the repeal of the Corn Laws (British import duties on grain). Afterward he attended various international peace conferences, and in January 1854 he went to Russia in an unsuccessful attempt to prevent the Crimean War. He died on 14 May 1859.

Cornelius Vanderbilt,Staten Island, New York

Millionaire, American shipping and railroad magnate who acquired a personal fortune of more than $100,000,000. The son of an impoverished farmer and boatman, Vanderbilt quit school at age 11 to work on the waterfront. In 1810 he purchased his first boat and used it to ferry passengers between Staten Island and New York City. During the War of 1812, he enlarged his operation to a small fleet with which he supplied government outposts around the city. In 1818 he sold all his boats and went to work for Thomas Gibbons as steamship captain. While in Gibbons’ employ (1818-29), Vanderbilt learned the steamship business and acquired the capital that he used in 1829 to start his own steamship company. By 1846 he was a millionaire. In 1847 he formed a company to transport passengers and goods from New York City and New Orleans to San Francisco. With the enormous demand for passage to the West Coast brought about by the 1849 gold rush, Vanderbilt’s company proved a huge success. By the 1850s he had turned his attention to railroads and by 1863 he owned the line. He later acquired the Hudson River Railroad and the New York Central Railroad and consolidated them in 1869. When he added the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern Railroad in 1873, Vanderbilt was able to offer the first rail service from New York City to Chicago. During the last years of his life, Vanderbilt ordered the construction of Grand Central Terminal in New York City, a project that gave jobs to thousands who had become unemployed during the Panic of 1873. He died on 4 Jan 1877 in New York, N.Y.

Leopold Zunz, Detmold, Germany

Historian, German historian of Jewish literature who is often considered the greatest Jewish scholar of the 19th century. He began (1819) the movement called Wissenschaft des Judentums (‘Science of Judaism’), which stressed the analysis of Jewish literature and culture with the tools of modern scholarship.

Zunz studied classics and history and took his doctorate at the University of Halle (1821). Much of his life afterward was a precarious struggle with poverty. He served as a lay preacher for a congregation and worked as a newspaper editor (1824-31) and later as a teacher and principal at the Jewish teachers seminary in Berlin (1840-50).

The Science of Judaism was initiated with his seminal work, Etwas uber die rabbinische Litteratur (1818; ‘On Rabbinic Literature’), which revealed to the interested public, for the first time, the scope and beauty of postbiblical Jewish literature. In 1819, together with Eduard Gans and, Moses Moser, Zunz founded the Verein fur Kultur und Wissenschaft der Juden (‘Society for Jewish Culture and Science’). He and his colleagues hoped that an analysis and exposition of the breadth and depth of Jewish history, literature, and culture would lead to general acceptance of the Jews. From 1822 to 1823, Zunz edited the Society’s Zeitschrift (periodical), to which he contributed a classic biography of Rashi, the great medieval commentator on biblical and rabbinical texts. When the society disbanded in 1824, he continued its work alone.

Zunz’s Gottesdienstlichen Vortrage der Juden, historisch entwickelt (1832; ‘The Worship Sermons of the Jews, Historically Developed’) is a historical analysis of Jewish homiletical literature and its evolutionary development up to the modern-day sermon. His revelations of the cultural depth of Jewish civilization in the European Middle Ages refuted the views of those who held that Jewish culture and learning ended with the biblical period.

Zur Geschichte und Literatur (1845; ‘On History and Literature’) was a wide-ranging work that placed the gamut of Jewish literary activity in the context of European literature and politics. Zunz wrote three important works on the liturgies of Judaism and served as editor in chief of a translation of the Bible (1838). In his last years he wrote a series of essays on the Bible, collected in Gesammelte Schriften, 3 vol. (1875-76; ‘Collected Writings’).

He died on 18 March 1886 in Berlin.

Charles Sturt, Calcutta, India

Explorer, Australian explorer whose expedition down the Murrumbidgee and Murray rivers (1829-30) is considered one of the greatest explorations in Australian history.{Canopus with his Mars indicating the physical desire to find new pathways and new places]. The expedition disclosed extensive areas of land for future development in New South Wales and South Australia. Educated in England, Sturt entered the British Army at the age of 18 and for the next 13 years served in Spain, Canada, France, and Ireland. In 1827 he became military secretary to the governor of New South Wales. In 1828-29 Sturt led the first of his major expeditions, tracing the Macquarie, Bogan, and Castlereagh rivers and discovering the Darling River. In his subsequent expedition down the Murrumbidgee he discovered the Murray River and followed it to its source near Adelaide. Exhausted and nearly blinded because of poor diet and overexertion on his trip, he spent 1832-34 recuperating in England, where he wrote Two Expeditions into the Interior of Southern Australia, 1828-31 (1833). The book led to the choice of South Australia as the site for a new British settlement. He returned to Australia in 1834 with a 5,000-acre grant of land and in1844 led an expedition north from Adelaide to the edge of Simpson Desert. Although it discovered no fertile land and was eventually driven back by heat and scurvy, his party was the first to penetrate the centre of the continent. He again left Australia for England (1847), where he wrote Narrative of an Expedition into Central Australia (1849).[Ed: His Sun in paran with Toliman marks him as an explorer]. He settled in England permanently in 1853 and he died on 16 June 1869.

John Keats, London, United Kingdom

Poet, Keats is best known for his lyrical verse and his search for perfection in poetry. His father died in 1804 and his mother remarried almost immediately. The death of his grandfather and the breakup of his mother’s second marriage saw Keats and his brothers go and live with their widowed grandmother. He started to read when his mother returned to live with them in 1809. In 1810 she died of tuberculosis. Trustees were appointed to manage the estate and Keats left school and was apprenticed to a surgeon. In 1815 he entered Guy’s Hospital as a student and started to write poetry. In May 1816 his first piece was published. He continued to write and by the age of 21 had abandoned his medical career. By 1818 family and financial troubles plagued him. One brother was very ill with tuberculosis and the other was immigrating to the USA. Keats nursed his sick brother while continuing his writing. He met Fanny Brawne and they were officially engaged in 1819. He also contracted tuberculosis and by July 1820 was being advised to go to Italy. He died there on 23 Feb 1821.[Ed: There are many creative stars in Keats chart but Regulus in paran with his Venus show us his creative soul and the success of his work].

Edward Gibbon Wakefield, London, England

Coloniser, British coloniser of South Australia and New Zealand and inspirer of the Durham Report (1839) on Canadian colonial policy. In 1814 Wakefield became secretary to the British minister at Turin, Italy, and in 1816 he married. His wife died in 1820, and in 1826, while on the staff of the British embassy in Paris, he tricked a young heiress into marrying him. Wakefield was tried and convicted of abduction and sentenced to three years’ imprisonment, and the marriage was dissolved by an act of Parliament. While confined in Newgate Prison, Wakefield saw firsthand the immense problems of the penal system and learned of the forcible removal of convicts to British overseas possessions, where squalid and often brutal conditions prevailed. He concluded that the controlled low-cost settlement of ordinary citizens (not convicts) in the colonies would best solve the problems of poverty and crime caused by the sharp increase in the British population.(Ed: here we see the vision of Alcyone which is linked to his Mercury as well as his ability to deal with the problems of human nature). In his first important book, A Letter from Sydney . . . (published in 1829 while he was still in prison), which was thought by many to have come from Australia, he proposed the sale of crown lands there in small units at a ‘sufficient price’ (fixed and modest), rather than the granting of large tracts free. The proceeds would pay for sending emigrants from Great Britain, who were to be equally divided by sex and to represent a cross-section of English society. In 1831 regulations embodying the ‘sufficient price’ concept were applied to New South Wales (originally settled by convicts) in Australia and to Cape Colony in southern Africa. Further, Wakefield’s anonymous England and America (1833), an elaboration of his theories, influenced the South Australian Act of 1834, which forbade the organization of South Australia as a convict settlement and incorporated the notion of the ‘sufficient price’ for subsidizing immigration. The colony was founded Dec. 28, 1836. In 1838, Wakefield spent five months in Canada and his encouragement and ideas influenced Durham’s Report that advocated the union of Ontario and Quebec under a single legislature. Wakefield projected a Church of England settlement on the South Island of New Zealand. Between 1847 and 1850, the bulk of the ‘Canterbury Pilgrims’ emigrated there, and on Feb. 2, 1853, Wakefield himself reached New Zealand. He became a member of the General Assembly there, but lived in retirement following a breakdown in December 1854. [Ed: Rigel with his Mars shows that his once radical ideas slowly become accepted and part of the established system]. He died on 16 May 1862.

Dorothea Dix, Hampden, Massachusetts

Social Reformer, Dix’s dedication to the plight of those with a mental illness saw reforms instituted in the USA and Europe. She opened a school in 1821 but until 1835, she was plagued with bouts of illness. In this time she was invited to hold Sunday school classes in a prison and there she saw first hand how those with a mental illness were incarcerated with criminals and the conditions in which they were housed. She worked towards the provision of special hospitals and improved treatment. Her work instigated reforms in dealing with the problems experienced by those with a mental illness in the USA and in Europe. [Ed: She is a positive example of Spica in paran with her Venus]. She died on 17 Jul 1887.

Alexandre Dumas, Villers-Cotterets, France

Dramatist, Novelist, Dumas is best known for his novels, ‘The Three Musketeers’ and ‘The Count of Monte Cristo’. He originally tried to make a living as a lawyer but eventually made contact with several actors and turned his hand to writing stage plays. He then turned to novels and his most popular, ‘The Three Musketeers’ was first published in 1844. He wrote other novels with the similar themes of romance and adventure set against a historical background. He died on 5 Dec 1870.

Antoine-Jerome Balard, Montpellier, France

Chemist,French chemist who in 1826 discovered the element bromine, determined its properties, and studied some of its compounds. Later he proved the presence of bromine in sea plants and animals.

In studying salt marsh flora from Mediterranean waters, Balard, after crystallizing sodium chloride and sodium sulphate from the seawater, saturating the residue with chlorine, and distilling the product, discovered the only liquid non-metallic element, bromine.

An exponent of the potential value of the sea as a source of chemicals, Balard taught at Montpellier École de Pharmacie, from which he had graduated in 1826. He became professor of chemistry at the Sorbonne (1842) and at the Collège de France, Paris (1851). He died in 1876.

John Augustus Sutter, Kandern, Germany

Pioneer, Coloniser, German-born pioneer settler and colonizer in California; discovery of gold on his land (1848) precipitated the California Gold Rush.

Fleeing from bankruptcy and financial failures and leaving his wife and children in Switzerland, he reached California in 1839 and persuaded the Mexican governor to grant him lands on the Sacramento River. There he established the colony of Nueva Helvetia (New Switzerland), later to become Sacramento. He built ‘Sutter’s Fort’ (1841), set up frontier industries, and, in spite of his enormous debts, provided lavish hospitality, and often employment, to traders, trappers, immigrants, and natives who came to his fort. Discovery of gold on his land brought disaster to Sutter. In the process of building a sawmill, a carpenter named John Marshall found flakes of gold (Jan. 24, 1848). The two men tried to keep the find a secret, but the news leaked out. Workers deserted the colony; gold seekers and squatters overran Sutter’s land, stealing and destroying his goods and livestock. When the U.S. courts denied title to his Mexican grants, his ruin was complete. By 1852 he was bankrupt. He died on 18 June 1880.

Adolphe Adam,Paris, France

Composer,The son of the pianist Louis Adam he wrote some successful operas, such as ‘Le Postillon de Longjumean’ (1835) but is chiefly remembered for the ballet ‘Giselle’ (1841).

Claude-Etienne Minie, Paris, France

Army Officer, Minie was responsible for designing a bullet for a muzzle-loading rifle. His name was given to the design known as the ‘Minie ball’. He served in the French army in Africa and rose to the rank of captain. In 1849 he invented the Minie ball and was rewarded by the French government who also appointed him to the staff of the military college. The Minie ball was adopted by most European and other armies and was used throughout the American Civil War. Minie died on 14 Dec 1879.

George Baxter, Lewes, England

Engraver, Baxtor was the engraver who invented a process (patented 1835) of colour printing that allow for the mass reproduction of paintings. He went to London in 1827 and supplied colour illustrations to the publisher George Modie and produced prints for the London Missonary Society. He sold his work to several high born clients and was even summoned to visit Queen Victoria. However, he had little business sense and when the patient on his invention ran out, competion over took him. He died two years later 11th January 1867 a penniless pauper.

Hans Christian Andersen, Odense, Denmark

Writer, Hans Christian Andersen is one of the world’s great story-tellers. After his father’s death he worked in a factory but soon displayed a talent for poetry. In 1830 he published his first collected volume of his Poems. He wrote many other works but it is such fairy-tales as ‘The Tin Soldier’, ‘The Tinderbox and ‘The Ugly Duckling’ that have gained him lasting fame and delighted children throughout the world. [Ed: His story-telling gift and the desire to leave a legacy to the world of children’s stories is expressed by Alphecca being in paran with his Moon as well as Polaris in paran to his Saturn].

John Russel Bartlett, Providence, Rhode Island

Linguist, Bibliographer, Bartlett was a bibliographer who made his greatest contribution to linguistics with his pioneer work, Dictionary of Americanisms: A Glossary of Words and Phrases, Usually Regarded as Peculiar to the United States (1848). It went through four editions and was translated into Dutch and German. (Ed: His widely accepted comments on American language and later Aldebaran being in paran with his Venus reflects society).

Appointed commissioner for the survey of the boundary between the United States and Mexico in 1850-53, he wrote as a result Personal Narrative of Explorations and Incidents in Texas, New Mexico, California, Sonora and Chihuahua . . . , 2 vol. (1854, reprinted 1965). Robert V. Hine, Bartlett’s West: Drawing the Mexican Boundary (1965), assesses Bartlett’s drawings and his stature as an interpreter of the West. As secretary of the state of Rhode Island he rearranged and classified the state records and prepared bibliographies and compilations on state history. Bartlett assisted John Carter Brown in acquiring and cataloguing his noted book collection, now in the John Carter Brown Library on the campus of Brown University. He died in 1886.

Ferdinand de Lesseps, Versailles, France

Diplomat, De Lesseps is best known for building the Suez Canal. He was appointed vice consul in Lisbon in 1825, went to Tunis in 1828 and was sent to Alexandria in 1832. There he studied a report prepared by one of Napoleon’s engineers outlining the feasibility of a canal on the isthmus of Suez. It was his dream one day to make the canal a reality. He served as consul in Cairo between 1833 to 1837 and there cultivated the friendship of the Turkish viceroy and his son. He eventually served in many cities in Europe but in 1849, a conflict between the papacy and the French Republic saw his diplomatic career shattered. In 1854 he received an invitation from the Turkish viceroy to Egypt and received the first act of concession authorising Lesseps a piece of the Isthmus of Suez. The building started on 25 April 1859 and was officially opened on 17 Nov 1869. In 1875 the British Government purchased the viceroy’s shares and became the biggest share holder of the Suez Canal. In 1879, the International Congress of Geographical Places voted in favour of the Panama canal. De Lesseps undertook to carry out the project but it defeated him and his company went into liquidation. He and his son were then prosecuted by the French government but only his son was imprisoned. De Lesseps died on 7 Dec 1894.

Jean-Eugene Robert-Houdin, Blois, France

Magician, Robert-Houdin is considered to be the father of modern conjuring. He was the first magician to use electricity and improved the signalling method for ‘thought trasference’ tricks as well as the exposition of ‘fakes. Always interested in magic, he developed a variety of apparatus to aid in the illusion. He used ordinary objects and provided common sense explanations to explain the trick. He also deride the supernatural explanations of magic favoured by others and spend a lot of time exposing them. In 1856 he was sent by the French government to Algeria to fight the influence of the dervishes by duplicating their tricks. His books described the techniques and methods of the tricks he employed. He died on 13 June 1871. (Ed:The dignity of his life is symbolised by Alderamin in paran with his Jupiter, while the ingenuity is expressed by Arcturus in paran with his Mercury]





Joseph Smith, Sharon, Vermont

Religious Leader, Smith is known as the founder of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons). He grew up at a time of great religious revivalism. At the age of 14, while walking through the woods, he experienced an intense spiritual revelation [Ed Algol rising linked with his Jupiter]. In 1827 he revealed that he was given a set of golden plates upon which were inscribed the history of the North American Indians, the descendants of the twelve tribes of Israel. He translated and published ‘The Book of Mormon’ in 1830 claiming it was proof of his divine calling. He established the Mormon Church on 6 April 1830. He led his followers in search of a place to settle and in 1839 they did so in Commerce, Illinois. [Ed: Jupiter in paran with Vindemaitrix shows how he could gather people around a religious idea]. Establishing himself as a leading citizen, Smith announced his candidacy for the US presidency in 1844. [Ed: His Venus in paran with Hamal shows his confidence that he knew the nature of a new social order that he considered necessary]. This led to dissention within the Church and when Smith closed down a printing press that published opposition to his candidacy, he and his brother Hyrrum were arrested on charges of treason. Although guaranteed protection, the brothers were murdered by a mob that stormed the jail. His martyrdom split the Church and the majority of his followers under the leadership of Brigham Young moved westward and established Salt Lake City in Utah. Smith died on 27 June 1844.

Caroline Norton,London, United Kingdom

Writer,Caroline Norton’s reputation is based not so much on her writing but on matrimonial suits which resulted in the recognition of women’s rights within marriage and the establishment of the Marriage and Divorce Act in Britain. She began to write early in life and in 1827 married Hon George Norton leaving him after three years. Norton brought civil action against Lord Melbourne, a friend of Caroline’s. It is believed this was politically motivated in order to discredit Melbourne but when the case came to court, the evidence was so flimsy that the jury found against Norton. He then refused to allow his wife access to their children. Her protests led to the introduction and eventual passing of the Infant Custody Bill in 1839. [Ed: Her Jupiter in paran with Rigel shows that when she is proactive she is successful]. In 1855 she was again involved in court action when her husband refused to pay her an allowance and also demanded the proceeds of her books. Her impassioned and eloquent letter to Queen Victoria saw the Marriage and Divorce Act of 1857 passed which addressed the inequities that married women had to suffer.[Ed With Menkar the star of the collective, in paran with her Venus, her personal marriage problems represent the collective issues and have impact on all women and all marriages.] Her works were held in high regard by her contemporaries. She died on 15 June 1877.

Thomas Cook, Melbourne, Derbyshire, United Kingdom

Traveller, Thomas Cook is remembered as the innovator of the conducted tour and the founder of what is believed to be the first travel agency. >From the age of 10 he worked at several jobs becoming a Baptist missionary in 1828. In 1841 he managed to arrange a special train to take a group to a temperance meeting. This was believed to be the first publicly advertised excursion train in England. Three years later the arrangement was made permanent as long as Cook could provide the passengers. He then started to take groups to various places and in 1856 he started his first Grand Tour of Europe. After 1860 he no longer accompanied the tours and became an agent for the sale of domestic and international travel tickets. His company expanded and was responsible for military transport and mail delivery in England and Egypt. He died on 18 Jul 1892.

Charles Darwin, Shrewsbury, United Kingdom

Naturalist, Charles Darwin established and documented the theory of evolution which eventually became known as ‘Darwinism’. He developed an interest in natural history and in 1831 sailed as a naturalist on the ‘Beagle’ that was on a survey mission to South America and the Pacific Islands. The five-year mission showed him evidence of the gradual evolution of species. Returning to England, he spent over twenty years refining his theories and X he started to write about them in 1856. In 1858 after reading a letter voicing some of his own ideas, he decided to publish his work, ‘On the Origin of Species’ which appeared in 1859. Darwin spent his later years suffering from a disease contracted in South America. He died on 19 Apr 1882.

Cyrus McCormick, Rockbridge Baths, VA, USA

Inventor, McCormick is known as the inventor of the mechanical reaper. The son of a farmer and blacksmith, he spent a lot of time in his father’s workshop and in 1831 attempted to build a mechanical reaper. He developed the basic design and in 1834 took out a patent for it but did nothing more choosing instead to concentrate on the family business. However, the bank panic of 1837 left the family deeply in debt and McCormick turned to the reaper. In 1844 he visited the prairie states and demonstrated his invention gaining orders. In 1847 he moved to Chicago and built a factory there convinced that grain production would move from the hilly Eastern seaboard to the flat midwest plains. His patent ran out in 1848 and rivals clamoured to prevent him from re-patenting and the reaper went into public domain. McCormick however outsold his competitors through advertising, demonstrations, mass production, product warranty and lines of credit. The reaper was introduced in Europe in 1851 and in 1855 won a gold medal at the Paris International Exhibition. He died on 13 May 1884.

Frederick Barnard,Sheffield, Massachusetts

Educator, Barnard was for nearly 25 years president of Columbia College in New York City, during which time Columbia was transformed from a small undergraduate institution for men into a major university.

Graduated from Yale in 1828, Barnard held several academic posts before becoming president and chancellor of the University of Mississippi from 1856 to 1861, when he resigned because of his Union sympathies.

Until Barnard went to Columbia in 1864, he had always defended the traditional prescribed curriculum of the classics and mathematics and had opposed vocational or professional subjects. At Columbia, Barnard changed his views, urging the college to expand its curriculum and introduce the elective system into the last two undergraduate years, to best develop advanced scholarship leading to graduate and professional education. He argued that this was the best way to attract more students. He was instrumental in establishing the School of Mines and opening the university to women. Barnard College, which bears his name, was founded as a ‘women’s annex’ in 1899 after the trustees had turned down his plan for coeducation at Columbia. He died in 1889.

Hugh Allan,Saltcoats, United Kingdom

Shipowner, Allan worked in Canada where his company of shipbuilders prospered and founded the Allan Line of steamers. His financial support of the 1872 Conservative Party election campaign led to a scandal which brought down the government.

Urbain-Jean-Joseph Le Verrier, Saint Lô, France

Astronomer, Le Verrier predicted by mathematical means the existence of the planet Neptune. He was appointed teacher of astronomy in 1837 and took on an extensive study of Mercury’s orbit and improved the tables then available on its planetary movement. He turned his attention to Uranus’ irregular orbit in 1845 and explained this by postulating the existence of a hitherto unknown planet. He calculated its size and position and asked German astronomer Johan G Galle to search for it. After only an hour of searching, on 23 Sep 1846, Galle discovered Neptune, merely one degree away from the position calculated by Le Verrier. The discovery conferred on Le Verrier a number of awards from several nations including France. A chair of astronomy was created for him at the Univeristy of Paris. In 1854 he was appointed director of the Observatory of Paris but the measures he instituted to improve efficiency made him unpopular and he was removed from the office in 1870. However, he was reinstated in 1873 after the death of his successor but was restrained by the supervision of an observatory council. In 1855 he undertook studies on Mercury’s unusual orbital motion. He died on 23 Sep 1877.

Harriet Beecher Stowe,Litchfield, Connecticut

Novelist, Philantropist, American writer and philanthropist, the author of the novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin, which contributed so much to popular feeling against slavery that it is cited among the causes of the American Civil War. [Ed Alnilam culminating with her Sun]

Stowe was the daughter of a prominent Congregationalist minister. She began to teach at her sister’s school in Hartford and, after 1832, in Cincinnati, Ohio until the school closed in 1836. That same year she married Calvin Ellis Stowe, a clergyman and seminary professor, who encouraged her literary activity and was himself an eminent biblical scholar. In 1850 she moved with her husband to Brunswick, Maine where she wrote the story of Uncle Tom’s Cabin; or, Life Among the Lowly for serial publication in the National Era, an antislavery paper of Washington, D.C. Her name became anathema in the South. But elsewhere the book had an unparalleled popularity and was translated into at least 23 languages; the dramatic adaptation of Uncle Tom’s Cabin played to capacity audiences. Stowe reinforced her story with The Key to Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1853), in which she accumulated a large number of documents and testimonies against slavery. In 1853, when she made a journey to Europe, she was lionized in England. In 1856 she published Dred: A Tale of the Great Dismal Swamp, in which she depicted the deterioration of a society resting on a slave basis. She thereafter led the life of a woman of letters. She died on 1 July 1896.

Elisha Otis, Halifax, VT, USA

Inventor, Otis is best known as the inventor of the safety elevator. In 1830 he worked as a builder and later, employed as a master mechanic in a factory, he invented many labour saving devices. As a result, the company sent him, in 1852, to build a new factory and install its machines. He designed and built the first safety elevator which would not plummet to the ground if the rope or chain broke. This was used for freight. He set up his own shop the following year and sold his first machine on 20 Sep 1853. The Crystal Palace Exhibition in 1854 saw him demonstrate his invention to a wide audience and by 1856 he installed the first safety elevator for passenger service. On 15 Jan 1861 he patented a steam elevator which went on to form the basis of the business. He died on 8 Apr 1861.

Isaac Singer, Pittstown, New York

Inventor, Singer developed the first practical sewing machine and brought it into domestic and general use. [Ed: Saturn in paran with Diadem showing his ability to build an empire from the ordinary needs of ordinary people]. He started work as a machinist and after working on an industrial sewing machine in 1851, he developed and patented his own design which featured continuous and curved stitching as well as an overhanging arm which made stirching possible on any part of the garment. The features he used on his machine have been the basis of sewing machines since. Together with Edward Clark, he formed a partnership and by 1860 their company had become the largest producer of sewing machines. Singer also promoted the instalment credit plan that have had such a great effect on consumer sales in modern society. He and Clark formed the Singer Manufacturing Company which acquired other patents for improvements. Singer then retired to England where he died on 23 July 1875.

Peter Christian Asbjornsen,Oslo, Norway

Folklorist, He studied in at the university in Oslo then for four years was a tutor in the country. In the long journeys on foot he collected a rich store of popular poetry and folklore, and with his lifelong friend Jorgen Moe, he published a famous collection of Norwegian folk tales in 1841. [Ed: Ras Alhague in paran with his Moon gave him a deep interest in the lives of other people or cultural groups. Sadalsuud with his Venus talks of the quality of the life long friendship he had with Jorgen Moe]. He died in 1885.

Sir Isaac Pitman, Trowbridge, United Kingdom

Educator, Inventor, Pitman is best known as the inventor of the Pitman system of shorthand. [Ed: Saturn in paran with Pollux indicating that he desired to build a body of work around an unusual idea, or communication concept]. He started life as a clerk and then trained as a teacher in 1831 and taught in schools for 11 years. He then opened his own school and became interested in shorthand. The system he developed, unlike existing systems at the time, was based on sound. In 1837, he wrote ‘Stenographic Sound Hand’ and in order to promote its use, he established the Pitman Institute and a Phonetic Journal. He was knighted in 1894 and died on 12 Jan 1897.

Ivar Aasen, Sunndalsora, Norway

Philologist, lexicographer, A fervent nationalist he was the creator of the ‘national language’ called ‘Landsmal’ later known as New Norwegian. The language eventually achieved recognition alongside the official Dano-Norewgian in 1855.

Sam Colt, Hartford, Connecticut

Manufacturer, Colt is known as the inventor of the Colt revolver popularised in Wild West fiction. He ran away to sea at 16 and by 1835 had patented the working form of his revolver. Later he invented a remote controlled explosive device. He also was the first to conduct business using an underwater telegraph cable. The manufacture of the Colt revolver saw for the first time the use of interchangeable parts and the production line. He died on 10 Jan 1862.

Antoine-Joseph Sax, Dinant, Belgium

Musical Instrument Maker, Sax is known as the inventor of the saxophone. His father was a maker of wind and brass instruments as well as pianos, harps and guitars. Sax studied at the Brussels Conservatorium and in 1842 went to Paris. There he demonstrated the saxophone that was the result of his efforts to improve the clarinet. The instrument was patented in 1846. He went on to develop the saxhorn with his father, the saxo-tromba and the saxtuba. He was appointed instructor at the Paris Consevatoire in 1857 and continued to invent instruments. However, he was not able to establish a commercial basis for them and was involved in running lawsuits from competitors. Living in abject poverty, he was assisted by a petition from fellow musicians to the Minister of Fine Arts. Sax died on 7 Feb 1894. [Ed The obsessional behaviour of his life can be explained by the paran between Antares and his Mercury]

Sir John Bennet Lawes, Harpenden, United Kingdom

Agronomist, Lawes founded the artificial fertiliser industry and the oldest agricultural research station in the world, Rothamsted. He inherited his father’s estate in 1822 and in 1842, after a long period of experimentation, he patented a process which produced superphosphate. He opened the first fertiliser factory the same year and in 1843 formed a partneship with a chemist, J H Gilbert. Together they studied the effects of different fertilisers and researched the value of different fodders and feeds for livestock. In 1867, the Royal Society awarded them a Royal Medal. Lawes was made a baronet in 1882 and seven years later created the Lawes Agricultural Trust. He died on 31 Aug 1900.

Horace Wells, Hartford, Connecticut

Physician, American dentist, a pioneer in the use of surgical anaesthesia. While practicing in Hartford, Conn., in 1844, Wells noted the pain-killing properties of nitrous oxide (‘laughing gas’) during a laughing-gas road show and thereafter used it in performing painless dental operations. He was allowed to demonstrate the method at the Massachusetts General Hospital in January 1845, but when the patient proved unresponsive to the gas, Wells was exposed to ridicule. After William Morton, a dental surgeon and Wells’s former partner, successfully demonstrated ether anaesthesia in October 1846, Wells began extensive self-experimentation with nitrous oxide, ether, chloroform, and other chemicals to ascertain their comparative anaesthetic properties. His personality radically altered by frequent inhalation of chemical vapours, he was jailed in New York City for throwing acid at passer-by. There, in a jail cell, he took his own life while the Paris Medical Society was publicly acclaiming him the discoverer of anaesthetic gases. (Ed: His success at the time of his suicide is described in his chart by both Betelguese and Algol linked to his Mars in the latter years of his life. His singular obsession with exploring anaesthetic gases can be seen in his Sun in paran with Polaris, the pole star). He died 24 Jan 1848.

Germain Sommeiller,St Jeoire, France

Engineer, French engineer who built the Mount Cenis (Fréjus) Tunnel in the Alps, the world’s first important mountain tunnel. While working at the University of Turin on the construction of a compressed-air ram to supply extra power to locomotives on steep grades, Sommeiller conceived the idea of adapting the machine to rock drilling, for which steam power was not suited because of the difficulty of transmitting it over distances. Commissioned to drive the 7-mile (12-kilometre) tunnel under Mount Cenis, between France and Switzerland, Sommeiller introduced his new drill, which he perfected by trial and error, and a little later, dynamite, just invented by Alfred Nobel. The tunnel was completed in December 1870. He died on 11 July 1871.

William Thomas Morton, Charlton, MA, USA

Dental Surgen, Morton is credited with the first public demonstration of the use of ether anaesthesia during surgery. He also was responsible for gaining world acceptance of surgical anaesthesia. He began practicing dentistry in 1844 and was present in 1845 when a former partner, Horace Wells unsuccessfully attempted to demonstarte the use of nitrous oxide gas. He was determined to find a better pain-killing drug and discussed this with his former teacher, Charles Jackson. He tried ether for the first time in a tooth extraction on 30 Sep 1846 and on 16 Oct successfully demonstrated it use on a patient undergoing surgery for a tumour. He tried unsuccessfully to obtain exclusive rights to the use of ether anaesthesia and spent the rest of his life in expensive court battles against Jackson who claimed priority in discovering the pain killer. [Ed: Rukbat in paran to his Mars indicates his unwillingness to let go of a conflict]. Morton died on 15 Jul 1868. [Ed: His birth time has been set to predawn as indicated by his parans].

Elizabeth Stanton, Johnstown, New York

Suffragist, American leader in the women’s rights movement who in 1848 formulated the first organized demand for woman suffrage in the United States. In 1850 Stanton began an association with another outstanding suffragist, Susan B. Anthony, who managed the business affairs of the movement while Stanton did most of the writing. They edited a women’s-rights newspaper, the Revolution (1868-70), and, with Matilda Joslyn Gage, the first three volumes of The History of Woman Suffrage, 6 vol. (1881-1922). She died 26. Oct 1902. [Ed: There are many strong stars in Stanton’s chart but Deneb adige in paran with her Saturn in her adult years is nicely expressed by her willingness to fight the unpopular cause and Rukbat in paran to Venus shows her persistence in fighting a cause that is based on an attitude in society].

Anne Ayres, New York, New York

Religious order, Anne Ayres was the first female to enter a religious order, since nunneries were abolished in the Reformation in the 16th century. The American Protestant sisterhood was formally organized in 1852 with Ayres as the first sister. She died in 1896.

Paul Julius Reuter, Kassel, Hessen, Germany

Publisher, Founder of the one of the first news agencies which still bears his name. Reuter was of Jewish origin but became a Christian in 1844. He originally worked in a bank but in the 1840’s joined a small publishing company. He published a number of political pamphlets that brought him to the notice of authorities. Reuter moved to Paris in 1848. There he translated newspaper articles and commercial news items and sent them back to Germany for publication. In 1850 he set up a carrier pigeon service between the terminus points of the German and French-Belgian telegraph line. Moving to England in 1851, he opened a telegraph office near the London Stock Exchange. He original clientele was commercial telegrams but he managed to persuade the flourishing newspapers to use his service. The breakthrough came in 1859 when he transmitted the entire speech of Napoleon III foreshadowing the Austro-French Piedmontese war in Italy. The service spread with the laying of underwater cables. Reuter was created a Baron in 1871 and retired in 1878. (Ed: The respect he personally gained for his devotion to the spreading to news so that all people had access to information can be seen is Alderamin in paran with his Moon, and his dream of this idea as Fomalhaut with his Mercury. Sirius Arising and Lying Hidden also in paran with his Mercury shows that once he embarks on his idea of a news service that it has far reaching implications and Thuban with Jupiter, shows that he was a river of information for others). He died on 25 Feb 1899.

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Carl Zeiss, Weimar, Germany

Industrialist, German industrialist who gained a worldwide reputation as a manufacturer of fine optical instruments. In 1846 Zeiss opened a workshop in Jena for producing microscopes and other optical instruments. Realizing that improvements in optical instruments depended on advances in optical theory, he engaged as research worker Ernst Abbe, a physics and mathematics lecturer (later professor) at the University of Jena, who in 1866 became Zeiss’s partner. They engaged Otto Schott, a chemist, who developed about 100 new kinds of optical glass and numerous types of heat-resistant glass. After the death of Zeiss, Abbe donated the Zeiss firm and his share in the glassworks to the Carl Zeiss Foundation. In 1923 Schott added his share in the glassworks to the foundation. In 1945 U.S. forces evacuated the board of management and about 100 scientists and technicians of the Carl Zeiss firm (Jena) to West Germany, where it was firmly re-established. He died on 3 Dec. 3, 1888.

William Crawford Williamson, Scarborough, United Kingdom

Naturalist, English naturalist, a founder of modern paleobotany. In 1835 he was appointed curator of the museum of the Manchester Natural History Society. In 1845 Williamson initiated the study of deep-sea deposits when he wrote a paper on the microscopic organisms found in the mud of the eastern Mediterranean region. Between 1840 and 1850 he introduced a new technique for the study of marine protozoans. Six years later he was appointed professor of natural history, anatomy, and physiology at Owens College in Manchester. In 1880 he became professor of botany there, a position he held until 1892. As a founder of palaeobotany, Williamson published this controversial material in the first of 19 memoirs gathered under the title On the Organization of the Fossil Plants of the Coal Measures (1872-94). He died on 23 June 1895.

John Calcott Horsley, London, United Kingdom

Painter, Horsley is best known as the designer of the first Christmas card. He studied at the Royal Academy and gained popular success before the age of 20. He was jokingly known as J C(lothes) Horsley because he was constantly critical of portraits of nudes. [Ed; a gentle expression of El Nath in paran to his Venus] In 1843, Horsley created a card for Sir Henry Cole depicting a family party and carrying the message ‘A Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year to You’. One thousand cards were printed and distributed to friends and family. Horsley died on 18 Oct 1903.

Pierre Larousse, Toucy, France

Encyclopaedist, Grammaarian, Larousse is famous for publishing a host of educational and reference works of 19th century France. He was the son of a blacksmith and obtained a scholarship to study at Versailles. He returned to his hometown as schoolmaster and remained there until 1840 when he went to Paris to do research. His first work, a vocabulary textbook, was published in 1849. There followed a stead stream of texts which, after 1852 were published by his own publishing house. His ‘Grand Dictionnaire’ was published in instalments over a period of 11 years. All his works were imbued with his love of knowledge and wanted to disseminate all knowledge available even though it was unconventional. Larousse died on 3 Jan 1875.

Antoine Frederic Ozanam, Milano, Lombardia, Italy,

Scholar, Ozanam was the founder of the Society of St Vincent de Paul. As a student, a crisis of faith led him to a committed belief in Catholicism and the religious need for charity. He studied law in Paris and there in 1833, helped organise a Conference of Charity to help the poor. Out of this was born, two years later, the Society of St Vincent de Paul which eventually before Ozanam’s death, numbered 2000 centres in 29 countries. Ozanam insisted that charity should be extended to non-Catholics as well as Catholics and his non-sectarian view was unusual at the time. He also encouraged Catholics to play a part in the evolution of the democratic state and social reform. He also decried the abuses of economic liberalism. He died on 8 Sep 1853.

Karl von Vierordt, Lahr, Germany

Physician, German physician and professor of medicine who developed techniques and instruments for the measurement of various aspects of blood and its circulation. Vierordt studied at the universities of Berlin, Göttingen, Vienna, and Heidelberg and started a practice at Karlsruhe in 1842. His first papers, on respiration and strabismus (a visual disorder), were well received. In 1849 he became associate professor of theoretical medicine at Tubingen and four years later was made professor of physiology there. One of Vierordt’s early discoveries was an exact method of making an erythrocyte (red blood cell) count. His inventions included the sphygmograph, the first instrument that could produce a graphic representation of the pulse, and the hem tachometer, an instrument that monitored the velocity of blood flow. Other research included spectrographic analyses of haemoglobin solutions, bile, and urine and studies of respiration and sound conduction. He died on 22 Nov 1884.

Ignaz Semmelweis, Budapest, Hungary

Physician, Semmelweis discovered the cause of puerperal (childhood) fever and introduced the concept of antisepsis into medicine. He received his medical degree in 1844 and soon became involved in the tragedy of childbirth deaths in maternity hospitals. Most of these deaths occurred in women who sought help in childbirth because of complications, poverty or illegitimacy and the death rate was up to 30 per cent. Through observation he postulated that student doctors moving from dissection of corpses to examination of patients without washing their hands caused infection in women. The introduction of a cleansing procedure reduced the mortality rate. Semmelweis met with opposition to his ideas from older physicians who also affected his professional progress. In 1865 he suffered a mental breakdown and was hospitalised. His illness and death were caused by infection of a wound on his hand caused by an operation performed shortly before he died. Ironically, he died of the same disease he had dedicated himself to eradicating. He died on 13 Aug 1865.

Thomas Francis Wade, London, England

Diplomatist, British diplomatist and Sinologist who developed the famous Wade-Giles system of Romanising the Chinese language. Wade graduated from Trinity College, Cambridge (1837), and entered the army. Sent to China in 1842, he began an earnest study of Chinese and eventually became an official interpreter, being one of the few officers who knew the Chinese language. After a visit to England in 1845, he became part of the diplomatic corps in China, serving in various posts over the years in Nanking, Hong Kong, Peking, and elsewhere and engaging in such important negotiations as those for the Treaty of Tientsin (1857), ending the second Opium War, and those for the Chefoo Convention (1876), opening new treaty ports. He was knighted in 1875. After retiring in 1883, Wade returned to Cambridge and in 1888 was elected the university’s first professor of Chinese. He had already written extensively on Chinese studies, his Peking Syllabary (1859) providing the basis of the Wade-Giles system of Chinese Romanisation, which was long the most popular form of Romanisation in the West as well as in China (even after the official introduction of Pinyin in 1958 and its adoption in 1979). On his death Wade left a large library of Chinese books to the university. [Ed Murzims culminating in paran with his Jupiter marks him not only as a person with interest in ohter cultures but also as one who finds success by pursuing these interest]. He died on 31 July 1895.

Richard Jordan Gatling, Maneys Neck, North Carolina, USA

Inventor, Known as the inventor of the machine gun, Gatling began his career helping his father perfect machines for sowing seeds and thinning plants. In 1839 he invented a screw propeller for boats and discovered that he was beaten to the patent by a few weeks. He established himself as an inventor in 1844 and using the cotton sowing machine he adapted it for other crops such as rice, wheat and other grains. He became interested in medicine after a bout of small pox and completed a medical course in 1850. In the same year he invented a hemp-breaking machine and in 1857 a steam plough. When the Civil War broke out he dedicated himself to firearms and by 1862 had perfected a rapid-fire machine gun. Its adoption however, did not occur until the end of the war. Gatling died on 26 Feb 1903. [Ed Gatling’s birth time has been set to pre drawn as these stars are more reflective of his life].

Christopher Sholes, Mooresburg, Pennsylvania

Inventor, *Known as the developer of the typewriter, Sholes was originally apprenticed to a printer and then moved west where he soon became editor of a newspaper. He then moved to a less demanding job and his inventive talents saw him patent a page numbering machine in 1864. On the suggestion of a friend, he re-worked the machine into a letter printing one. He dedicated the rest of his life to perfecting it. He was jointly awarded a patent for it on 23 June 1868 but had difficulty raising the capital to manufacture the devices. In 1873, he sold the patent to the Remington Arms Company that then marketed it as the Remington Typewriter. He died on 17 Feb 1890.

John Couch Adams, Bodmin, United Kingdom

Astronomer, In 1843 he deduced mathematically the existence and location of the planet Neptune, his prediction occurring almost simultaneously with that of the French astronomer, Leverrier, Adams was appointed professor of astronomy at Cambridge in 1858.

Edward Squibb, Wilmington, Delaware

Chemist, Pharmaceuticals, U.S. chemist and pharmaceutical manufacturer who developed methods of making pure and reliable drugs and founded a company to manufacture them. During the four years when Squibb served on various ships as a U.S. Navy medical officer, he observed the poor quality of medicines supplied to the Navy. He persuaded the Navy to manufacture their own drugs instead of contracting for them from the lowest bidder. In 1851, he was appointed to Brooklyn Naval Hospital. He set up a laboratory there and built the first still for making anaesthetic ether. Between 1852 and 1857, he discovered processes for making chloroform, fluid extracts, bismuth salts, and other preparations. After Squibb had resigned from the Navy, Dr. Richard S. Satterlee, surgeon general of the U.S. Army, suggested that Squibb start a laboratory of his own to supply the Army with reliable drugs. By 1883, he was manufacturing 324 products and selling them all over the world. His drugs and medicines were in great demand in the Civil War. After the war, he campaigned for better enforcement of the laws regulating the import of drugs. He helped revise the Pharmacopoeia, the basic code book of American pharmacy. From 1882 until his death, he also wrote and published Ephemeris, a journal of practical advice and new discoveries, to update the Pharmacopoeia. His inventions include the automatic zero burette and a specific gravity apparatus. In 1892, his two sons joined the firm, which became E.R. Squibb & Sons.

Herman Melville, New York, New York

Novelist, Melville is known for his masterpiece ‘Moby Dick’. In 1826, his father described him as ‘…backward in speech and somewhat slow in comprehension… of a docile and amicable disposition’. A bout of scarlet fever in the same year left him with weak eyesight. His father died in 1832 leaving the family in desperate straits. In 1837, further financial difficulties forced him to train as a surveyor for a job that never materialised. In 1839, he found work on a merchant ship but it was not until 1841 that his love affair with the sea started. He set sail for the Pacific and his adventures became the basis of his first novel in 1846. He continued to write and won acclaim for his books and in 1850 he bought a farm. He and his next door neighbour, Nathaniel Hawthorn embarked on a friendship which was intense on Melville’s part and which eventually Hawthorn found uncongenial. They met for the last time in 1856. Moby Dick was published in Oct 1851 in London to little acclaim. He continued to write but became increasingly isolated and withdrawn. He published and worked through this period and in 1863 finances became easier. His last work ‘Billy Budd’ was finished in 1891 and remained unpublished until 1924. Melville died five months later on 28 Sep 1891.

George Eliot, Warwick, Warwickshire, United Kingdom

Novelist, Eliot is the pen name of Mary Ann Evans. She was a major literary force with her psychological analysis, which became a hallmark of modern fiction. She attended several schools and her religious ardour and piety was encouraged. She dressed severely and did charitable works. She returned home to care for her father when her mother died. She became acquainted with a group of freethinkers and by 1842 declared to her father that she could no longer accompany him to church. [Ed Her Mercury in paran with Rigel shows her strong personal views]. After a great deal of upheaval, a compromise was reached where she could think what she wished as long as she accompanied him to church. This she faithfully did until his death in 1849. She then travelled eventually settling in London, as a freelance writer in 1851. In that year she also met George Henry Lewes and lived with him from that period onwards. As Lewes was already married although estranged from his wife this relationship outside of marriage caused her to be estranged from her family. Eliot published a series of stories under the pseudonym of ‘George Eliot’ and met with success. Her first novel, ‘Adam Bede’ was published in 1859. She died on 22 Nov 1819.

John Tyndall, Leighlinbridge, Ireland

Physicist, British physicist who demonstrated why the sky is blue. In 1853 Tyndall was chosen professor of natural philosophy at the Royal Institution, London, where he became a colleague and friend of Michael Faraday. His early work was concerned with the magnetic properties of crystals, but in 1859 he began investigating the ability of various gases to absorb and radiate heat. He established that humid air absorbs heat with little change in temperature, a phenomenon of meteorological importance. Tyndall studied the diffusion of light by large molecules and dust, known as the Tyndall effect; he also performed experiments demonstrating that the sky’s blue colour results from the scattering of the Sun’s rays by molecules in the atmosphere, a phenomenon which was later explained theoretically by Lord Rayleigh.

In 1881 he delivered the final blow to the long-held idea of spontaneous generation by proving that germ-free air does not lead to food decay. Tyndall’s publications, more than 16 books and 145 papers, include Heat Considered as a Mode of Motion (1862), Six Lectures on Light (1873), and Forms of Water (1872). He died on 4 Dec 1893.

Susan Anthony, Adams, Massachusetts

Social Reformer, At an early age she became active in temperance and anti-slavery movements, but in 1854 age 34, she became a champion of women’s rights (Aculeus with her Moon). In 1869, age 49, she co founded the National American Woman Suffrage Association. She also organized the International Council of women (1888) and the International Woman Suffrage Alliance in Berlin (1904). She died in 1906.

Henrich Barth, Hamburg, Germany

Explorer, Barth was a German geographer and one of the great explorers of Africa. [Ed: Capella on his nadir in paran with his Mars symbolises summation of his life work as a great explore].

Educated in the classics at the University of Berlin, Barth was a competent linguist who was fluent in French, Spanish, Italian, English, and Arabic. He travelled the Mediterranean coastal areas that are now part of Tunisia and Libya (1845-47) and published his observations in 1849.

Early in 1850, with the explorer James Richardson and the geologist and astronomer Adolf Overweg, he set out from Tripoli across the Sahara on a British-sponsored expedition to the western Sudan (a term then in use for most of central West Africa). When Richardson died a year later in what is now northern Nigeria, Barth assumed command. He explored the area south and southeast of Lake Chad and mapped the upper reaches of the Benue River. Overweg died in September 1852, and Barth travelled to the city of Timbuktu, now in Mali. He remained there for six months before returning, via Tripoli, to London (1855).

Despite ill health and the loss of his colleagues, he had travelled some 10,000 miles (16,000 km), laid down accurate routes by dead reckoning, and returned to Europe with the first account of the middle section of the Niger River. His four large volumes, Reisen und Entdeckungen in Nord- und Central-Afrika in den Jahren 1849 bis 1855 (1857-58; ‘Travels and Discoveries in North and Central Africa in the Years 1849-1855’), remain one of the most comprehensive works on the area and contain an immense amount of anthropological, historical, and linguistic information as well as the daily travel details he so assiduously recorded. His work was honoured and rewarded financially by the British government. He died in 1865.

Linus Yale, Salisbury, New York

Inventor and designer of the compact cylinder pin-tumbler lock that bears his name.

At first Yale tried portrait painting, but he became interested in locks after his father began to manufacture bank locks in about 1840. His first achievement was the Yale Infallible Bank Lock in 1851. By about 1862 he had introduced the combination lock. His most important invention was the cylinder lock, based on the pin-tumbler mechanism of the ancient Egyptians. [A nice expression of Schedar with his Jupiter, as his greatest success comes from an ancient idea]. In 1868 Yale, in partnership with John Henry Towne and his son, Henry Robinson Towne, founded the Yale Lock Manufacturing Company.

He died on 25 Dec 1868 in New York City.

Mary Baker Eddy, Concord, MA

Religious Founder, Eddy was the founder of the Christian Science movement. As a child, she was sickly and spent much of her early years at home reading and writing prose at an early age. She married in 1843 but her husband died before their first child was born. Again because of her frail health, the child was reared away from its mother and had little contact with her. She was preoccupied with health issues and became interested in homeopathy and in 1853 married again. Eddy sought the help of a well-known healer to whom she attributed her miraculous cure. She extolled his skills but when he died, her illness recurred. In 1866 she suffered a fall, which exacerbated her symptoms but later claimed to be cured after reading the New Testament. She pointed to this moment as the discovery of Christian Science. By then, she had separated from her second husband and spent her time writing and evolving her system. In 1875 she published ‘Science and Health’ which became the basis of the new faith. The first church was established in 1879 and Eddy became the driving force of a religious, educational and publishing network. [Ed: Rukbat in paran with her Jupiter is expressed in her life by her laying the foundation stones for a new religious sect]. She died on 3 Dec 1910.

Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Moscow, Russia

Novelist, Dostoyevsky’s work has had a profound influence on the development of the modern novel. He qualified as a military engineer but resigned his commission in 1846 to dedicate himself to writing. In 1849 he was arrested for involvement in a radical discussion group and was sentenced to death. This was commuted to imprisonment and he was sent to Siberia. He was released in 1854 and married in 1857. He travelled through Europe and founded a magazine with his brother. His first major novel, ‘Crime and Punishment’ appeared in 1866 and the following year he married for the second time. The novel that is considered his masterpiece, ‘The Brothers Karamazov’ was published in 1879. Dostoevsky died on 9 Feb 1881.

Clare Barton, Oxford, Massachusetts

Humanitarian, Barton was the founder of the American Red Cross, known as the ‘angel of the battlefield.’ [Ed Spica with her Saturn in Aries is nicely expressed as the stellar force behind her role as the founding force of the Red Cross]. After 18 years as a schoolteacher in Massachusetts and New Jersey, Barton moved to Washington, D.C., and became a clerk in the U.S. Patent Office. At the outbreak of the Civil War she organized an agency to obtain and distribute supplies for the relief of wounded soldiers. In 1865, at the request of President Abraham Lincoln, she set up a bureau of records to aid in the search for missing men. While she was in Europe for a rest, the Franco-German War broke out, and she again distributed relief supplies to war victims.

In Europe she became associated with the International Red Cross, and in 1881 she established the American National Red Cross. In 1882 she succeeded in having the United States sign the Geneva Agreement on the treatment of the sick, wounded, and dead in battle and the handling of prisoners of war. She wrote the American amendment to the constitution of the Red Cross, which provides for the distribution of relief not only in war but also in times of such calamities as famines, floods, earthquakes, cyclones, and pestilence. {Ed: In many ways her work with healing the wounded in war and then later extending that to others in need is nicely symbolised by her Mars in paran with Ras Alhague, the great healer].

Barton conducted relief for sufferers from disasters in the 1880s and ’90s and served in Cuba during the Spanish-American War (1898). She served as president of the American Red Cross until 1904, when, under increasing criticism of her arbitrary leadership, she stepped down to avoid further dissension within the organization. She wrote several books, including History of the Red Cross (1882) and The Red Cross in Peace and War (1899). she died in 1912.

Heinrich Schliemann, Neubukow, Germany

Archaeologist, Schliemann is best remembered as the man who discovered Troy. He is considered as the discoverer of prehistoric Greece. As a young boy, a picture of Troy in flames became a beacon to his belief that there was historical truth behind the Homeric legends. [Zuben Eschamali in paran with his Mercury]. Although from an impoverished family, his amazing memory and gift for languages (he was fluent in up to 13 languages) helped him embark on a mercantile career that saw him make a fortune and retire at the age of 36. From then he dedicated his energy to prehistoric archaelogy in particular the site of the fabled city of Troy. In 1873 he discovered the fortifications of an ancient city that he identified as Homeric Troy. Schliemann was instrumental in establishing arcahelogy as a science and popularising it to the public. He died on 26 Dec 1890.

Gregor Mendel, Ivancice, Czech Republic

Botanist, Mendel was the first to lay a mathematical foundation for the science of genetics. He studied natural philosophy and entered the Augustinian order in 1843, taking the name of Gregor. He was ordained a priest in 1847 and in 1849 undertook teaching duties at a nearby school. Failing the teacher qualification exam, he was sent to the University of Vienna where, between 1851-53 he studied the sciences. He returned to the monastery in 1854 where he taught at the technical high school and he was elected abbot in 1868. The basic principles of heredity took form in his monastic garden in 1856 where he observed the differences in characteristics of garden peas that he crossbred and cultivated. [Ed: Scheat with Saturn showing his ability to work with data and Zuben Elgenubi with his Mercury showed his love of research without seeking personal gain]. He published the results of these experiments in 1865. His work remained in obscurity until 1900 when subsequent researchers, having obtained similar results to Mendel’s experiments, found that the theory and research data had already been published. Mendel died on 6 Jan 1884.

Hiram Revels, Fayetteville, North Carolina

Educator, Senator, Revels was the first African-American citizen elected to the US Senate. He was born of free parents and travelled west to get the education denied him in the South. He was ordained a minister in 1845 and when the Civil War broke out in 1861, he helped organise volunteer regiments of African-Americans to serve in the Union Army. He also served as a chaplain to an African-American regiment stationed in Mississippi. He settled there after the war and was appointed aldreman by the military government in 1868 and a year later was elected to the state senate. He played a role in minimising race friction with white Southerners and he was elected to the US Senate in 1870 to see out the unexpired term of Jefferson Davies, former Confederate President. After his term in Washington DC, Revels returned to state politics where he was made interim secretary of state. He was also president of Alcorn College, a tertiary institution for Africa-Americans but was sacked as president in 1874. Although a Republican, he helped in 1875, to overrun the Republican state government on grounds that too many of its elected officials were corrupt. He was returned to his post at Alcorn College by the incoming Democrat government and remained at it until his retirement. [Ed: In many ways his life is captured by the expression of Al Rescha with his Mars]. He died on 16 Jan 1901.

Louis Pasteur, Dole, France

Microbiologist, Pasteur’s fame rests on his discovery that microorganisms cause fermentation and disease. He also pioneered the process known as pasteurisation. Pasteur studied at the Sorbonne and gained his degree in 1847. He worked in various capacities and between 1857 and 1867 he found means to save the beer, wine and silk industries in France which were plagued by micro-organisms. In 1881, he was the first to vaccinate against anthrax and in 1885, used vaccination for the first time against rabies. He died on 28 Sep 1895. [Ed: His insights into the medical world are describe by several stars Arcturus with his Saturn in the years of his prime being the strongest]

Robert Whitehead, Lancashire, United Kingdom

Engineer, Inventor, British engineer who invented the modern torpedo. In 1856, after serving an apprenticeship in Manchester and working in Marseille, Milan, and Trieste, he organized, with local capital, a marine-engineering works, Stabilimento Tecnico Fiumano, in Fiume (now Rijeka, Croatia). There he successfully designed and built engines for Austrian warships and began to work on a torpedo, which he completed in 1866. In 1872 he bought the firm and turned it into a manufacturer of torpedoes and accessories. In 1876 he improved his vehicles by using a servo-motor that gave them a truer course through the water, and he gradually increased their speed to 29 knots for 1,000 yards. In 1896 he used a gyroscope to control the course of a torpedo. He died 14 Nov 1905.

Ludwig Bamberger, Mainz, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany

Economist, Publicist, Bamberger was a leading authority on currency problems in Germany. Originally a radical, he became at least partly converted to Bismarckian antiliberalism.

Born of Jewish parents, Bamberger was studying French law when the 1848 revolution inspired his radicalism. He became a newspaper editor, took part in the 1849 republican rising in the Palatinate, went into exile, and was condemned in absentia to death. Bamberger managed the Paris branch of a London bank until the amnesty of 1866 enabled him to return to Germany.

By then an admirer of Otto von Bismarck, Bamberger dissociated himself from all democratic groups. In 1870, at Bismarck’s request, he participated in the Franco-German peace negotiations, and in 1871 he entered the Reichstag as a National Liberal. He died in 1899

Bamberger obtained the standardization of the German coinage, adoption of the gold standard, and establishment of the Reichsbank. Although he supported Bismarck’s outlawing of the Socialist Party and attempts to nationalize the railways, Bamberger from 1878 opposed the chancellor’s policy of protective tariffs, state socialism, and colonial expansion. In 1880 Bamberger left the National Liberal Party and helped to found the splinter party called the Sezession. For some years afterward he was the trusted adviser of the crown princess Victoria (wife of the future German emperor Frederick III).

Charles Worth, Bourne, United Kingdom

Fashion Designer, Pioneer fashion designer and founder of Parisian haute couture. In 1845 Worth left England, where he had been an indentured bookkeeper in a London yard-goods firm. He first worked in a Paris dress-accessories shop and then, in 1858, established his own ladies’ tailor shop. Through Princess Metternich, wife of the Austrian ambassador to France, he gained the patronage of the fashionable empress Eugenie, wife of Napoleon III of France.

Worth was the first to prepare and show a collection in advance, the first man to become prominent in the field of fashion, and the first to use young girls as models.[Ed: Betelgeuse in paran with his Venus giving success in the fashion industry]. He pioneered in designing dresses to be copied in French workrooms and distributed throughout the world. Worth became the dictator of Paris fashion. He is especially noted for designing sumptuous crinolined gowns that reflected the elegance of the Second Empire period (1852-70) and for introducing the bustle, which became a standard in women’s fashion throughout the 1870s and ’80s. He died on 10 March 1895.

Johann the Younger Strauss, Vienna, Austria

Musician, Composer, The Waltz King,’ a composer famous for his Viennese waltzes and operettas. Strauss was the eldest son of the composer Johann Strauss the Elder. Because his father wished him to follow a non-musical profession, he started his career as a bank clerk. He studied the violin without his father’s knowledge, however, and in 1844 conducted his own dance band at a Viennese restaurant. In 1849, when the elder Strauss died, Johann combined his orchestra with his father’s and went on a tour that included Russia (1865-66) and England (1869), winning great popularity. In 1870 he relinquished leadership of his orchestra to his brothers, in order to spend his time writing music. Strauss’s most famous single composition is The Blue Danube (1867), the main theme of which became one of the best-known tunes in 19th-century music. His other successful waltzes include Morning Papers (1864), Artist’s Life (1867), Tales from the Vienna Woods (1868), Wine, Women and Song (1869), Vienna Blood (1871), and Kaiserwaltzer (1888). Of his nearly 500 dance pieces, more than 150 were waltzes. Among his stage works, Die Fledermaus (1874; The Bat) became the classical example of Viennese operetta. Equally successful was Der Zigeunerbaron (1885; The Gypsy Baron). Among his numerous other operettas are Der Karneval in Rom (1873; The Roman Carnival) and Eine Nacht in Venedig (1883; A Night in Venice). He died on 3 June 1899.

Joseph Arch, Warwick, Warwickshire, United Kingdom

Preacher, Reformer, The son and grandson of farm labourers he became a Primitive Methodist preacher and used his training in the early 1870s when farm labourers in the south and central areas of England began to protest against low wages and harsh living conditions. Arch formed and was elected president of the National Agricultural Labourers’ Union and remained president until it was dissolved in 1896. He was a strong willed, self-confident man who also became a member of the British parliament in 1885. He was considered a key person in obtaining the vote for farm labourers in 1884.[Ed: Facies in paran with his Saturn showing his desire and obsession to build something for a harshly treated minority group]. He died in 1919.

Jean Antoine Villemin, Nancy, France

Physician, French physician who proved tuberculosis to be an infectious disease, transmitted by contact from humans to animals and from one animal to another. Villemin studied at Bruyeres and at the military medical school at Strasbourg, qualifying as an army doctor in 1853. He was sent for further study to the military medical school in Paris. As an army doctor he observed that healthy young men from the country often developed tuberculosis while living in the close quarters of the barracks. Aware that glanders in horses, a similar disease, is transmitted by inoculation, Villemin began his experiments by inoculating a rabbit with tuberculous material from a deceased human patient. He also found that the animals developed the disease. His results, presented in 1867, were at first ignored. Villemin tried valiantly to spread the doctrine of contagion. He later proved by injection that sputum and blood from tubercular patients can transmit the disease to animals. He died on 6 Oct 1892.

Peter Lalor, Queenstown, Ireland

Rebel, Politician, Lalor is best known for his leadership of the most famous insurrection in Australian history at the Eureka Stockade. He emigrated to Australia in 1852 and ended up at the gold diggings in 1853. He joined the Ballarat Reform League established by the miners on 11 Nov 1854 to fight the high license fees, police brutality, lack of representation and a shortage of land. Their petitions was ignored by the Victorian government and the miners decided to fight on. Lalor was choosen as their leader on the 30th November. [Ed: Murzims in paran with his Venus, shows that his speeches and ideas were liked by the miners, the orator]. The miners were driven from the Eureka Stockade on 3rd Dec and Lalor went into hiding emerging after the charges against the rebel leaders were dropped. He was one of the first elected representatives of the gold fields and took his seat in 1855 and served in various capacities in the Legislative Assemly and in the Legislative Council for over 30 years. He died on 9 Feb 1889.

John Speke, Devonport, United Kingdom

Explorer, British explorer who was the first European to reach Lake Victoria in East Africa, which he correctly identified as a source of the Nile. Commissioned in the British Indian Army in 1844, he served in the Punjab and travelled in the Himalayas and Tibet. In April 1855, as a member of Richard Burton’s party attempting to explore Somaliland, Speke was severely wounded in an attack by the Somalis that broke up the expedition. In December 1856 he rejoined Burton on the island of Zanzibar. Their intention was to find a great lake said to lie in the heart of Africa and to be the origin of the Nile. After exploring the East African coast for six months to find the best route inland, the two men became the first Europeans to reach Lake Tanganyika (February 1858). On July 30 Speke reached the great lake, which he named in honour of Queen Victoria. Speke’s conclusion about the lake as a Nile source was rejected by Burton and was disputed by many in England, but the Royal Geographical Society, honoured Speke for his exploits. {Ed: Betelgeuse in paran with his Jupiter mark him as an explorer] On a second expedition (1860), he and James Grant mapped a portion of Lake Victoria. On July 28, 1862, Speke, found the Nile’s exit from the lake and named it Ripon Falls. In February 1863 he met the Nile explorers Samuel Baker and Florence von Sass who told him of another lake said to lie west of Lake Victoria. This information helped him locate another Nile source, Lake Albert. Speke’s claim to have found the Nile source was again challenged in England, and, on the day he was to debate the subject publicly with Richard Burton, he was killed by his own gun while hunting on 15 Sept 1864.

Jules Verne, Nantes, France

Novelist, French author whose writings laid much of the foundation of modern science fiction. In Paris Verne studied law but afterward chose to follow his interest in literature. In 1850 his play, Les Pailles rompues (‘The Broken Straws’), was successfully produced at Alexandre Dumas’s Theatre Historique. He served as secretary at the Theatre Lyrique (1852-54) and later turned stockbroker but continued writing comedies, librettos, and stories. In 1863 he published in Jules Hetzel’s Magasin d’Education et de Recreation the first of his Voyages extraordinaires–Cinq Semaines en ballon (1863; Five Weeks in a Balloon, 1869). The great success of the tale encouraged him to produce others in the same vein of romantic adventure, with increasingly deft depictions of fantastic but nonetheless carefully conceived imaginary scientific wonders. The Voyages continued with Le Voyage au centre de la Terre (1864; A Journey to the Centre of the Earth, 1874), De la Terre a la Lune (1865; From the Earth to the Moon, 1873), Vingt Mille Lieues sous les mers (1870; Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea, 1873), and L’lle mysterieuse (1874; The Mysterious Island, 1875), in which he foresaw a number of scientific devices and developments, including the submarine, the aqualung, television, and space travel. Verne’s novels were enormously popular throughout the world; one in particular, the grippingly realistic Le Tour du monde en quatre-vingt jours (1873; Around the World in Eighty Days, 1873), generated great excitement during its serial publication in Le Temps and remained one of his most popular works. From 1872 he lived in Amiens. In 1892 he was made an officer of the Légion d’Honneur. He died on 24 March 1905.

Henri Dunant, Geneva, Switzerland

Humanitarian, Dunant was the founder of the Red Cross and the Young Men’s Christian Association [YMCA]. He was also the co-winner of the first Nobel Peace Prize. On 24 June 1859, Dunant was a witness to the Battle of Solferino that left 40,000 casualties. He organised emergency medical and other supplies for the wounded. In 1862 he proposed the formation of an international relief society to help, in times of disaster, during war and peacetime. The relief society would make no distinction of racial, political or religious persuasions and would aid all who needed help. In 1864 he formed the Red Cross. Having neglected his own affairs he went bankrupt and from 1867, spent the rest of his life in poverty and obscurity. He continued to be committed to causes such as the abolition of slavery, international disarmament and the establishment of a Jewish homeland. He was rediscovered in 1895 and was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1901. He died on 30 Oct 1910.

Andrew Taylor Still, Jonesboro, Virginia

Physician, U.S. founder of osteopathy, who believed that remedies for disease are available in the correctly adjusted body, obtained through manipulative techniques and concomitant medical and surgical therapy. [His determination and focus on this concept is reflected in his Mercury in paran with the pole star Polaris]. Still acquired some medical training from his father. About 1849 he began to practice medicine in Kansas and in Missouri. Motivated by the deaths of three of his children in an epidemic, he formulated his principles of osteopathy in 1874. After a period of opposition he founded the American School of Osteopathy at Kirksville in 1892.[Ed: Canopus with his Moon is a lovely expression of Osteopathy]. In 1924 it was absorbed by the Andrew Taylor Still School of Osteopathy and Surgery, founded by George Laughlin in 1922, which was renamed the Kirksville College of Osteopathic Medicine in 1971. Still established the Journal of Osteopathy in 1894. He died on 12 Dec1917.

Leo Tolstoy, Tula, Russia

Novelist, From a landed noble family, Tolstoy was university educated and became a teacher. However, he became dissatisfied with this life and in 1847 he returned to his family’s property. In 1852, together with his brother, he joined the army where he saw action in local skirmishes. Travelling abroad, he returned and started a school for peasant children in his home town. In 1862, he married Sonya. His writing career had already been established with short stories and an early novel, The Cossacks (1863). The publication of War and Peace in 1865, established him as the pre-eminent Russian author of his day. [Ed: Vindemaitrix on his nadir with his Venus shows that we remember him for his insights into the different lives and cultures of his characters]. His second major work, Anna Karenina consolidated this position. In A Confession (1868) he explored his own spiritual crisis and search for meaning. He dedicated himself to social reform but continued to be torn by his urge to be an ascetic versus his success as a writer and his responsibilities as a landowner. Late one night he left home and was discovered dead a few days later at a remote railway junction. His date of death is given as 20 Nov 1910. [Ed: His time of birth has been set to pre dawn as these parans are more reflective of his life].

Joseph Swan, Sunderland, Durham, United Kingdom

Physicist, Chemist, English physicist and chemist who produced an early electric light bulb and invented the dry photographic plate, an important improvement in photography and a step in the development of modern photographic film. Working with wet photographic plates, he noticed that heat increased the sensitivity of the silver bromide emulsion. By 1871 he had devised a method of drying the wet plates, initiating the age of convenience in photography. Eight years later he patented bromide paper, the paper commonly used in modern photographic prints. Some years earlier, in 1860, Swan developed a primitive electric light, one that utilized a filament of carbonised paper in an evacuated glass bulb. Lack of a good vacuum and an adequate electric source, however, resulted in a short lifetime for the bulb and inefficient light. His design was substantially the one used by Thomas A. Edison nearly 20 years later. In 1880, after the improvement of vacuum techniques, both Swan and Edison produced a practical light bulb. Three years later, while searching for a better carbon filament for his light bulb, Swan patented a process for squeezing nitrocellulose through holes to form fibres. In 1885 he exhibited his equipment and some articles made from the artificial fibres. The textile industry has utilized his process. Swan was knighted in 1904. He died on 27 May 27 1914.

Oliver Winchester, Boston, Massachusetts

Arms Manufacturer, U.S. manufacturer of guns and ammunition who developed the Winchester rifle and made the Winchester Repeating Arms Company a success by the shrewd purchase and improvement of the inventions of other men. In 1848 he set up a factory in New Haven to manufacture dress shirts. His financial success enabled him, in 1857, to purchase and reorganise a small arms company and, in 1867, was named the Winchester Repeating Arms Company. The company produced a long line of Winchester guns, including the famous Model 73, a favourite weapon of the settlers in the American West. He died on 11 Dec 1880.

Christina Rossetti, London, United Kingdom

Poet, Writer, Rossetti was a poet and writer whose work covered children’s literature, poems of fantasy, religious poetry and essays and discourses. She was the sister of Dante Gabriel Rossetti and was, like her brother, a gifted poet. She also suffered from ill health and a melancholic disposition. In the 1870’s she was diagnosed with Grave’s disease. She had an overpowering sense of spiritual purity and strove to achieve it to the point of self-denial. In 1850 she turned down a suitor because he had left the Church of England and converted to Catholicism. Fourteen years later, she did the same to Roger Cawley because he had no religious belief. She started writing at an early age and her poetry was first published in 1847. She died on 29 Dec 1894.

Emily Dickinson, Amherst Center, Massachusetts

Poet, Dickinson was a shy, religious and intelligent woman who earned the title of ‘the New England mystic’. Her family were an established one and although close were somewhat remote. Although a sceptic, she had strong religious feelings and this was an underlying tension in her work. She began writing in 1850 and during this time she formed some lasting friendships, which she maintained over many years. Dickinson’s greatest year of stress was 1862 when on 15 April she submitted 4 poems to Thomas Wentworth, a literary man, to seek his opinion. He advised her not to publish although he did see her original style. Dickinson never again submitted a piece for publication but maintained a correspondence with Wentworth who served as literary mentor. She experience persistent eye trouble and in 1864-1865, she underwent treatment. After this, Dickinson never again left the family home. She never married but lived with her sister. After her death on 15 May 1886, her sister undertook to get her work published. During her peak, she had written over 800 poems.

George Mortimer Pullman, Brocton, New York

Industrialist, Pullman lent his name to his invention of the Pullman sleeping car for use on railroads. He moved to Chicago in 1855 where he started his work in developing the sleeping car. The first ‘Pullman’ car appeared in 1865. He established a company to manufacture the sleeping cars that were leased to railway companies. He built a town (Pullma) just outside Chicago to house his employees. The town and the company’s paternalistic concern (Dubhe in paran with his Sun on the nadir) were considered a social experiment. He died on 19 Oct 1897.

Nikolaus Otto, Holzhausen, Sachsen, Germany

Engineer, Otto developed the petrol powered four stroke internal combustion engine which was the first practical alternative to steam power. He built his first perol engine in 1861 and then formed a partnership with industrialist Eugene Langen. Together they developed a more advanced model which garnered a gold medal at the Paris Exposition in 1867. That year he built an engine built on a four stroke cycle which was very successful but his patent on the four stroke cycle were revoked in 1886 as a previous patent was discovered although it is still known as the ‘Otto cycle’. Otto died on 26 Jan 1891.

Edward Burnett Tylor, Somerset, England

Anthropologist, English anthropologist regarded as the founder of cultural anthropology. [Ed: Capella in paran with his Saturn – structure positively combined with independent thinking]. His most important work, Primitive Culture (1871), developed the theory of an evolutionary, progressive relationship between primitive and modern cultures. Tylor was knighted in 1912. He was the son of a prosperous Quaker brass founder and attended a Quaker school until he was 16. In 1855, at the age of 23, symptoms of tuberculosis led him to travel to America in search of health. He made his way in 1856 to Cuba, where he met ethnologist Henry Christy who persuaded Tylor to accompany him on his expedition. Tylor gained practical knowledge of archaeological and anthropological fieldwork. He returned to England. He married in 1861 and his first book, Anahuac; or, Mexico and the Mexicans Ancient and Modern was published in 1858. His last book, Anthropology, an Introduction to the Study of Man and Civilization was published in 1881. Tylor was made a fellow of the Royal Society in 1871 and given a doctorate of civil law at the University of Oxford in 1875. Eight years later he returned to Oxford to give lectures and stayed there as keeper of the university’s museum, becoming reader in anthropology in 1884 and the first professor of anthropology in 1896. He was also elected the first Gifford lecturer at Aberdeen University in 1888. He retired from active life in 1909 and died on 2 Jan 1917.

Louisa May Alcott, Germantown, Pennsylvania

Writer, Alcott was the daughter of Amos Bronson Alcott and in 1868 she achieved enormours success with the children’s classic ‘Little Women’ which drew on her own home experiances.

Gustave Eiffel, Dijon, Bourgogne, France

Engineer, Eiffel is remembered for building the tower than bears his name. He became a well-known designer and builder in metal and was responsible for a number of bridges in France and in Europe. He helped design the framework for the Statue of Liberty and in 1887, he astounded the world with the construction of the Eiffel Tower which earned him the nickname ‘magician of iron’. [Ed: Spica culminating in paran with his Sun shows the recognition of his brilliance ]. He died on 28 Dec 1923. [Ed Eiffel’s birth time has been set to pre dawn].

Alfred Bernhard Nobel, Stockholm, Stockholms Lan, Sweden

Inventor, Industrialist, Nobel was an engineer and industrialist who invented several types of dynamite and other explosives but is better known for his establishment of the Nobel Prize. He left Sweden in 1842 to join his father in St Petersburg where he was educated privately, became a competent chemist at 16 and was fluent in 5 languages. In 1850 he left Russia to study in Paris and later, in the USA. He returned to St Petersburg and worked in his father’s factory until bankruptcy forced its closure in 1859. Nobel returned to Sweden where he started manufacturing nitroglycerin but an explosion at the factory, which killed his brother and four other people brought official bans to his work. Already known as a ‘mad scientist’ Nobel continued to experiment with ways of handling nitroglycerin safely producing dynamite and the detonating cap. [Ed: Noble has many interesting stars but notably he has both Hamal – action orientated, – and Alphard, assertiveness in paran with his Mars leading him into what would seem a reckless lifestyle. However Hamal in paran with Jupiter shows his eventual success in these risky areas]. He gained patents for it in 1867 in Britain and 1868 in the US. Further developments of other explosives made him a fortune and he left the bulk of it to establish a trust which would recognise outstanding literary and scientific achievement. This trust become the most highly regarded award, the Nobel Prize. [Menkar in paran with his Mars showing that potential that his actions have to effect the collective]. Alfred Nobel died on 10 Dec 1896.

Sally Louisa Tompkins, Mathews, Virginia

Humanitarian, Hospital Admin, US humanitarian and hospital administrator, she became the only woman to be commissioned in the Confederate Army. With her own money, she purchased and converted a private residence in Richmond, Virginia into a hospital and administered it during the Civil War. Confederate President Jefferson Davies, commissioned her a captain in the Confederate army on 9 Sep 1861. He did this in order to retain her services after all hospitals in the South were placed under military jurisdiction. Tompkins served without pay throughout the conflict and was known as ‘Captain Sally’. She retained her rank until her death on 25 July 1916 when she was buried with military honours.

Dmitry Mendeleyev, Tobol’sk, Russia

Chemist, Mendeleyev is known for his development of the periodic classification of elements. The final form of his periodic table, published in 1871, also foretold of future elements still be discovered. He also predicted the properties of three of these elements. Mendeleyev was the seventeenth and last child in the family. His father became blind that year and his mother operated a glass factory. In 1847, his father died and the following year the glass factory burned down. In the face of these adversities, the family moved. Due to admission regulations, Mendeleyev was unable to qualify for a university education and eventually trained as a teacher in 1855. He gained a university appointment in 1857 and was sent to Heidelberg to further his studies in 1859. He returned to Russia in 1861 but a lack of positions saw him turn to writing and editing scientific journals. He became professor of chemistry in 1864 and due to a lack of textbooks, wrote the classic ‘The Principles of Chemistry’. {Ed: His devotion to a subject, in this case chemistry, is reflected in his Mercury in paran with Diadem]. It was in the course of writing the book that he developed the periodic table. Mendeleyev also applied his knowledge in practical ways to agriculture, industry and oil exploration. He died on 2 Feb 1907.

Frederic-Auguste Bartholdi, Colmar, France

Sculptor, Bartholdi was the French sculptor of the Statue of Liberty in New York Harbor.

Bartholdi trained to be an architect in Alsace and Paris and then studied painting with Ary Scheffer and sculpture with J.-F. Soitoux. He toured the Middle East in 1855 with the painter J.-L. Gérome. In 1865 he and several others conceived an idea for a monument to the Franco-American alliance of 1778. Beginning work in 1870, Bartholdi designed the huge statue on his own initiative and was able to see its construction through using funds he raised in both France and the United States. Dedicated in 1886, the statue was titled, in full, ‘Liberty Enlightening the World’ and was given to the United States by France. The Statue of Liberty is Bartholdi’s best-known work, but his masterpiece is the ‘Lion of Belfort’ (completed 1880), which is carved out of the red sandstone of a hill that towers over the city of Belfort in eastern France. This is generally regarded as the best of a number of patriotic sculptures by Bartholdi that were inspired by the French defeat in the Franco-German War of 1870-71. He died in 1904. [The Statue of Liberty is a beautiful example of Schedar with his Saturn – he built a noble structure of a women out of stone, so it would endure.]

Anna Harriette Leonowens, Carnarvon, Wales, United Kingdom

Writer, Leonowens is best known as the governess employed by the King of Siam to educate his children. Her story has been immortalised in several films, a book and a stage show as well as in her own works. She went to Asia at the age of 15 and married an officer in the Indian Army. After his death in 1858, she lived with her two children in Singapore. In 1862, King Mongkut of Siam invited her to serve as governess to the royal children. She lived in the royal household for five years. After she left Siam, she wrote two books, ‘The English Governess at the Siamese Court’ (1870) and ‘The Romance of the Harem’ (1872). She died on 19 Jan 1914.

Tz’u-hsi, Beijing, Beijing, China

Empress Dowager, Consort of the Hsien-feng emperor (reigned 1850-61), mother of the T’ung-chih emperor (reigned 1861-75), and adoptive mother of the Kuang-hsu emperor (reigned 1875-1908), who dominated the Chinese empire for almost half a century. Ruling through a clique of conservative, corrupt officials, she maintained an iron grip over the Manchu Imperial house (Ch’ing dynasty, 1644-1911/12), becoming one of the most powerful women in the history of China.

She bore Hsien-feng an only son in 1856 and when he died, the six-year-old boy became the T’ung-chih emperor. The regency was transferred to Tz’u-hsi and Tz’u-an, both empress dowagers were aided in their intriguing by Prince Kung, the former emperor’s brother.

Under this triumviral rule, the government entered a temporary period of revitalization. The regency was terminated in 1873 after the T’ung-chih emperor attained maturity, but Tz’u-hsi’s control over state affairs continued. After T’ung-chih’s death, Tz’u-hsi, flagrantly violated the succession laws and had her three-year-old nephew, whom she adopted, named as the new heir. The two empress dowagers thus continued to act as regents, but after Tz’u-an’s sudden death in 1881, Tz’u-hsi became the sole holder of the office. Three years later, she displaced Prince Kung. In 1889 Tz’u-hsi nominally relinquished control over the government but in 1898, conservative officials collected around Tz’u-hsi, who again used the military to institute a coup. The new reforms were reversed, the Emperor was confined to his palace, and Tz’u-hsi resumed the regency. In 1900 the Boxer Rebellion reached its peak; some 100 foreigners were killed. But a coalition of foreign troops captured the capital, and Tz’u-hsi was forced to flee the city and accept the humiliating peace terms. Returning to Peking in 1902, she finally began to implement many of the innovations she had reversed in 1898. She died in Peking on 15 Nov 1908, Peking.

Ramakrishna, Hooghly-Chinsura, India

Religious Leader, Born of a poor family, Ramakrishna showed an early religiosity. At the age of seven he was said to be ‘god-intoxicated’ and throughout his life fought against what he saw as the twin evils of sexual passion and money. He also set out to experience God rather than just learn about him. [Ed: Ramakrishna has many interesting stars in his chart, but Bellatrix in paran with his Moon shows his hands on approach to his spiritual views]. Ramakrishna was married at 23 to a five year old but the marriage was never consummated. From there he embarked on a twelve-year regime of an ascetic lifestyle when he explored yogic and other trance inducing exercises. Through his religious experiences, he demonstrated the essential unity of all religions. He died on 16 Aug 1886.

Elizabeth Anderson, London, United Kingdom

Physician, Elizabeth Anderson was the first English woman doctor. She began studying in 1860 in the face of opposition to the admission of women, and eventually (1865) qualified as a medical practitioner by passing the Apothecaries’ Hall exam.(Ed: Aldebaran in paran with her Sun which is active in her early years showed that she had the strength and belief in herself to fight the unfair system). In 1866 she established a dispensary for women in London where she later instituted medical courses for women. In 1870 the University of Paris gave her the degree of MD. Later in 1908 she was elected mayor of Aldeburgh, the first woman mayor in England.

Sir James Murray, Roxburgh, United Kingdom

Lexicographer, Murray was the first editor of what is today known as The Oxford English Dictionary. Originally a grammar school teacher between 1855-1885, he undertook the editing of a vast dictionary that was to be an inventory of all words used in English from the 12th century. The dictionary was based on a structure of strict historical and descriptive principles accompanied by meanings and examples of usage with a date. The first section was published in 1884. Murray worked form 1885 until his death and completed approxinmately half the dictionary. His legacy was the organisation which made the completion of such a great task possible. He died on 26 Jul 1915.

Charles Stratton, Bridgeport, Connecticut

Showman, Midget showman who was the first major attraction promoted by the American circus impresario P.T. Barnum. Born to parents of normal stature, Stratton ceased growing at the age of six months and remained 25 inches (0.6 m) tall, weighing 15 pounds, until his teens; he later grew to 40 inches (1 m) and 70 pounds. He was not quite five years old when Barnum hired him for his museum, but Barnum publicized him as General Tom Thumb, an 11-year-old dwarf from England; he quickly became a celebrated figure in the United States and abroad.[Ed: Sualocin culminating and in paran with his Saturn shows his unusual or eccentric career]. In 1863 Stratton married Lavinia Warren (1841-1919), another of Barnum’s midgets, in an elaborately staged ceremony in Grace Episcopal Church, New York City. He died 15 July 1883.

John Wilkes Booth, Bel Air, Maryland

Assassin, John Wilkes Booth gained notoriety as the assassin of Abraham Lincoln. Born into a distinguished acting family, Booth was the ninth of ten children. He showed a natural gift for acting early in life but also displayed signs of emotional instability and egocentricity so much so that he could not accept his brother Edwin’s rise to fame as the most well known actor of the day. He had his theatrical debut in 1856 and after several years of playing small roles he joined a small company in 1859 in Richmond, Virginia where he was continuously in demand. He was a supporter of the Confederacy and an advocate of slavery. He also hated Lincoln with a passion. Booth served the Confederate cause by joining the militia as well as a spy during the Civil War. By 1864 Booth had developed a plan of abducting Lincoln and with several co-conspirators, set about hatching the plan. After several abortive attempts, Booth resolved to destroy Lincoln. On the morning of 14 Apr 1865, learning that Lincoln would be attending a performance that evening, he made the necessary arrangements. That night he walked into the unguarded theatre box and shot Lincoln through the back of the head. Leaping onto the stage he made his escape. Twelve days later, on 26 Apr 1865, he was trapped in a barn that was set alight and he was either shot, or shot himself. His body was transported to Washington where it was identified.

Aritomo Yamagata, Hagi, Japan

Soldier, Japanese soldier and statesman who exerted a strong influence in Japan’s emergence as a formidable military power at the beginning of the 20th century. He was the first prime minister under the parliamentary regime serving 1889-91 and 18980-1900.

In 1858 as a student, he became a member of a loyalist group incensed at the growth of foreign influence. In 1863 he was chosen commanding officer of a unit of revolutionaries. In 1864 he witnessed the Shimonoseki Incident which saw the bombardment of Chosu by an allied fleet of Western powers that resulted in the defeat of the rebels. The defeat opened his eyes to the superiority of the Western military system. He studied military institutions and in 1871 oversaw the formation of an Imperial Force and he was promoted to vice minister of military affairs.[Ed: His knowledge of foreign military powers is symbolised in his chart by Capella in paran with his Jupiter]. In 1877 his troops quelled a revolt that proved the superiority of these troops over the former samurai troops and established his leadership in the army. In 1878, he issued the ‘Admonition to the Military’ emphasising the virtues of bravery, loyalty and obedience to the emperor. This was re-issued by the Emperor in 1882 and became a spiritual guidepost for the Imperial Army until its surrender in World war II.

Yamagata also took on the task of refashioning the Japanese military system according to the Prussian model. In 1889 he became the first Prime Minister under the newly established parliamentary system. After the Sino-Japanese War he was promoted to Field Marshall in 1898 affirming his position in Japanese military and political circles. After the assassination of his main rival in 1909, Yamagata led Japan as a virtual dictator backed by the military and the bureaucracy under his influence.

He fell from grace in 1921 when he sought to meddle in the Crown Prince’s marriage for which he was publicly censured. He died on 1 Feb 1922 in disgrace.

George Symons, London, United Kingdom

Metereologist, British meteorologist who strove to provide reliable observational data by imposing standards of accuracy and uniformity on meteorological measurements and by substantially increasing the number of reporting stations.

Symons was elected a member of the British Meteorological Society in 1856, when he was only 18 years old. He concentrated his attention on the collection of rainfall statistics and, in 1860, issued the first of his annual rainfall reports. In that year results from 168 stations were compiled in the report, but by 1899, the year before his death, more than 3,500 stations throughout the British Isles were included. Acutely aware of the problem of inconsistency introduced by the use of different types of rain gauges, he initiated a series of experiments that led to the adoption of a standard instrument. He was twice elected president of the Royal Meteorological Society and, in 1878, was elected a fellow of the Royal Society. He died on 10 March 1900.

Liliuokalani, Honolulu, Hawaii

Monarch, Liliuokalani was the first and only reigning Hawaiian queen and the last Hawaiian monarch to govern the islands. She was reared as a Hawaiian princess although she received a modern education and completed a world tour before returning to the islands. She was named heir in 1877 at the death of her younger brother and in 1891 suceeded to the throne. She was violently opposed to the concessions granted by her brother to commercial interests and sought to reestablish the monarchy’s power. She met opposition and was dethroned by Stanford Dole who then established a provisional government prior to annexation by the USA. A plea to the US president saw her reinstated but the order was ignored. An uprisng in 1895 in her name was quickly suppressed. On 24 Jan 1895 Liliuokalan agreed to sign a formal abdication in order to win pardons for her supporters who had been jailed. She left public life and died on 11 Nov 1917.

Karl Weyprecht, Bad Konig, Germany

Explorer, Arctic explorer who discovered Franz Josef Land, an archipelago north of Russia, and who advanced a successful scheme for international cooperation in polar scientific investigations. Under the sponsorship of the Austrian government, with Julius Payer as his lieutenant, Weyprecht took part in two Arctic expeditions that sought to find a northeast passage, a waterway from the Atlantic to the Pacific north of the Eurasian continental landmass. On the second of these expeditions (1872-74), his ship was caught in the polar ice and drifted for more than a year. On Aug. 30, 1873, he sighted Franz Josef Land and spent the next year exploring the region. He eventually abandoned his ship and, after journeying for 96 days by sledge and small boat, reached Novaya Zemlya, an archipelago south of Franz Josef Land. On returning to Austria he proposed that interested governments establish one or more scientific stations where work could be done simultaneously according to a previous plan. The International Polar Commission that was formed organized the first International Polar Year (1882-83), with 11 countries establishing 12 stations in the Arctic and 2 in the Antarctic.(Ed: His work in establishing the Polar Commission is described by Aldebaran active in his later years linked to Jupiter, while his years of exploration are described by Jupiter in paran to Phact, the star of exploration). He died 29 March1881.

Victoria Woodhull, Homer, Ohio

Reformer, Unconventional American reformer who at various times championed such diverse causes as woman suffrage, free love, mystical socialism, and the Greenback Movement. She was also the first woman ever to run for the U.S. presidency (1872).

She was married at the age of 15. After divorcing in 1864, she married to Colonel James H. Blood. In 1868 the entire family moved to New York City, and became involved her in a socialist group called ‘Pantarchy’–a theory rejecting conventional marriage and advocating a perfect state of free love combined with communal management of children and property. [Sadalsuud with her Mars shows her non-aggressive warriorship]. She and her sister began to publish Woodhull and Claflin’s Weekly, advocating among other things equal rights for women and a single standard of morality for both sexes. They published the first English translation of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels’ Communist Manifesto. In 1872, Woodhull–by now an accomplished public speaker–was nominated for the presidency by the Equal Rights Party. She also became an early patron of aviation, offering a prize of $5,000 in 1914 for the first transatlantic flight. She died on 10 June 1927.

Cleveland Abbe, New York, New York

Meteorlogist, He wrote on the atmosphere and on climate and was responsible of the introduction of the US system of Standard Time.

Frances Willard, Churchville, New York

Educator, Reformer, U.S. educator, reformer, and founder of the World’s Woman’s Christian Temperance Union (1883). An excellent speaker, ( Aldebaran with her Mercury) a successful lobbyist, and an expert in pressure politics, she was a leader of the national Prohibition Party.

She was a teacher after graduation from the Northwestern Female College, Evanston, Ill., in 1859. In 1871 she became president of the new Evanston College for Ladies. When that school was absorbed by Northwestern University in 1873, she was appointed dean of women, a post she resigned in 1874 to become corresponding secretary of the newly founded National Woman’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU). From 1879 until her death she served as president of the national organization. She was also the first president of the worldwide WCTU. In addition to temperance, she advocated woman suffrage and safety codes for women in industry. She died 18 Feb 1898.

George Armstrong Custer, New Rumley, Ohio, USA

Military Officer, Custer led his men to death in one of the most controversial battles in the history of the USA. Educated at West Point, Custer graduated in 1861. He served, and distinguished himself in the Civil War. However, he was court martial in 1867 for taking unauthorised leave but reinstated the following year. He was sent to subdue the Plains Indians and in 1876 was part of an expeditionary force that discovered gold on Indian sacred hunting ground. As a result, the US government ordered all Indian tribes in the area to place themselves into designated reservations otherwise they would be considered hostile. Indians arrived at the site from their winter camps where they either were unaware of, or did not attach any importance to the US government deadline. Custer was sent to disperse the congregated tribes where he was to also join up with another commander and his force. Arriving early, Custer chose not to wait, but instead attacked the tribes. The Battle of Little Big Horn took place on 25 June 1876 and there were no survivors.

John Holland, Liscannor, Ireland

Inventor, Holland is known as the father of the modern submarine. He was educated in Limerick and was a school teacher until 1872. In 1873 he emmigrated to the USA where he taught school until 1879. With support from the Fenian Society, he built the ‘Fenian Ram’ that the Irish hoped to use against the English. In 1895, his company received a contract from the US Navy to build a submarine. The first vessel was a failure but the second, known as the ‘Holland’ became the first practical submarine. The US and other government orders launched the use of submersible boats in naval forces. Among Holland’s other inventions were a device to help sailors escape from damaged submarines. He spent the latter part of his years in litigation against his financial backers. He died on 12 Aug 1914.

George Smith, London, United Kingdom

Archaeologist, Smith’s most important contribution was his discovery of one of the most important literary works of Mesopotamian civilization, ‘The Epic of Gilgamesh’. The account of a flood which so closely matched biblical sources had a significant impact on his generation. [Ed: Deneb Algedi in paran with his Moon showing the connection to the stories of humanity, the stories of the people]. He was apprenticed as an engraver but educated himself and became skilled at deciphering cuneiform writing on the tablets that made their way to England in 1861. Publication of his translations attracted attention and he soon became an assistant in the department of antiquities in the British Museum. He discovered references to a flood in material he was working on and a newspaper, The Daily Telegraph sponsored an expedition to find the missing fragment to complete the account if the flood. In May, 1873, on the fifth day of the expedition, Smith found the fragment. [Ed: Mars with Castor indicates his love of the hunt for words] He published this in ‘Chaldean Account of Genesis’ and this became a best seller. He died on 19 Augu 1876.

Edward Whymper, London, United Kingdom

Mountaineer, English mountaineer and artist who was associated with the exploration of the Alps and was the first man to climb the Matterhorn (14,691 feet [4,478 metres]). He was sent to Switzerland in 1860 to make sketches for a book on the Alps and became a mountaineer thereafter. In the western Alps he climbed Mont Pelvoux (1861) and Les Écrins (1864). On his eighth attempt to scale the Matterhorn, on July 14, 1865, Whymper made the ascent. On the descent, one member of his party slipped and pulled down three more–all four fell to their deaths. The rope broke, saving Whymper and two guides. One of the best known of all mountaineering accidents, this event is recorded in Whymper’s Scrambles Amongst the Alps (1871; condensed as Ascent of the Matterhorn, 1879), which is illustrated with his own engravings.

In 1867 and 1872 Whymper visited Greenland with the intention of crossing its ice cap, but he became convinced that the undertaking would prove too costly for him. In Ecuador (1880) he twice ascended Chimborazo, and he spent a night on the summit of Cotopaxi (19,347 feet [5,897 metres]), the world’s highest continuously active volcano. He published Travels Amongst the Great Andes of Ecuador (1892), which contained much valuable information for geographers, geologists, and mountaineers. He also compiled two handbooks on the climbing of Chamonix (1896) and Zermatt (1897; both reprinted 1974). Whymper’s last journeys were in the Canadian Rockies (1901-05). He died on 16 Sept 1911. [Ed: Phact, the explorer on his nadir in paran with his Moon shows him as the romantic adventure].

Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky, Votkinsk, Russia

Musician, Composer, Leading Russian composer, whose works are notable for their melodic inspiration and their orchestration. He is regarded as the master composer for classical ballet, as demonstrated by his scores for Swan Lake, The Nutcracker, and Sleeping Beauty. Tchaikovsky was musically precocious, but his parents did not actively encourage this because it was considered that it had an unhealthy effect on an already neurotically excitable child. The family moved to St. Petersburg, where he entered the School of Jurisprudence in 1850. His state of mind was more seriously affected in 1854 when he was 14 and his mother, whom he loved dearly, died of cholera. He entered the newly founded St. Petersburg Conservatory of Music in 1862. His job as a clerk in the Ministry of Justice was hardly interesting enough to prevent his increasing absorption with music. He was offered in late 1865 a post as professor of harmony at the Moscow Conservatory. Tchaikovsky settled down comfortably in Moscow in January 1866, although he underwent a mental crisis as a consequence of overwork on his Symphony No. 1 in G Minor (Winter Daydreams), Opus 13 (1866). In the mid-1870s he had another nervous breakdown. One of the symptoms of this nadir in his life was almost hysterical activity in composition culminating in the Symphony No. 4 in F Minor, Opus 36 (1877), and the opera Eugene Onegin (1877-78). A former music student, Antonina Milyukova, became infatuated with him, threatening suicide should he reject her. He consented to marry her. He must have subconsciously known all along that an unconsummated marriage was hardly likely to be successful, but it was doubly unfortunate that his wife should have been a nymphomaniac who repelled him to such an extent that he made an abortive attempt at suicide. (Ed: Tchaikovsky’s potentially destructive passion is reflected by both Algol and Antares in paran to his Sun). His latent homosexuality, he fully realized, made him, in the eyes of society a permanent sexual outcast. He loved children but would never have any of his own. He was to live the rest of his life in frustration and loneliness alleviated only by occasional heavy drinking and by composition. Even the happy summers spent at his sister’s house at Kamenka in the Ukraine were later spoiled by an overwhelming sense of guilt when he fell in love with her son, his young nephew ‘Bob’ (Vladimir) Davydov. He died on 25 Oct 1893.

Thomas Hardy, Dorchester, England

Author, Hardy first studies architect but at age 22 he moved to London and wrote love poetry. However, unable to get his work published he moved to the novel as his creative medium. His first work ‘Far from the Madding Crowd’ (1874) was a success that propelled him to become a professional writer. His main works were all tragedies with increasing pessimistic in tome and after ‘Tess of the D’Urbervilles’ he was dubbed an atheist. He died in 1928. (Ed Alderamin linked with his Saturn shows the continual acceptance of his work as well as the growing pessimism).

Alderamin with his Saturn.

Benjamin Altman, New York, New York

Businessman, With no or little formal education Altman first owned a dry goods store in New York City (1865) and later founded B Altman & Co (1906) which became one of the country’s most stylish department stores. He collected paintings and sculptures among other art works during his many visits to Europe, bequeathing his collection to the Metropolitan Museum. [Ed: Thuban in paran with his Moon indicates his philanthropist nature].

Auguste Rodin, Paris, France

Sculptor, His massive statues in bronze and marble including ‘The Thinker’ contributed to his reputation as the greatest portraitist in the history of sculpture. Born of a poor family, Rodin learnt to draw at 13 and at 17 attempted to enter the School of Fine Arts in Paris but failed in his three attempts. He turned to decorative stonework. The death of his sister in 1862 so traumatised him that he considered entering the church. He met Rose Beuret, two years later and entered in a life-long liaison, marrying her only weeks before her death in 1917. At the age of 35, he discovered the work of Michelangello and Donatello in a trip through Italy and was instrumental in helping him evolve a style of his own. He developed such an intense realism, which was in stark contrast to the work of his contemporaries, that most of his works provoked scandals and in some cases, riots. [Ed Rodin’s Saturn in paran with Bellatrix is expressed by his desire to capture a different and greater socially challenging theme in his sculptures]. Rodin was accused of using the bodies of humans as moulds for his sculptures. In spite of this, his artistic reputation grew although his private life was often troubled and tempestuous. His numerous liaisons were triggered by a lustful and unbridled sensuality which also spilled over into his art. His sculptures have immortalised many great figures of his time including the dancer Nijinsky and the writer, George Bernard Shaw. [Saladmelek with his Moon shows the fortunate associations and his successful art]. Rodin died on 17 Nov 1917.

Henry Morton Stanley, Denbigh, United Kingdom

Explorer, British-American explorer of central Africa, famous for his rescue of the Scottish missionary and explorer David Livingstone and for his discoveries in and development of the Congo region. [Ed: His fame based more on his rescue of Dr Livingstone, rather then his other work, is a reflection of Diadem on his nadir in paran with his Sun]. He was knighted in 1899 and died 10 May 1904.

Jules Violle, Langres, France

Physicist, French physicist who at Mont Blanc in the French-Swiss Alps made the first high-altitude determination of the solar constant (1875). A graduate of the Ecole Normale Superieure at Paris, he taught at the University of Lyon (1883), then at the Ecole and, from 1891, at the Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers, Paris. Violle also determined the fusion points of palladium, platinum, and gold. His interest in high-temperature radiation led to his proposing the photometric unit, violle, or Violle’s standard. He was also interested in the theory of geysers, the origin of hail, and atmospheric exploration through balloon soundings. He died on 12 Sept. 12, 1923.

Hermann Vogel, Leipzig, Germany

Astronomer, German astronomer who discovered spectroscopic binaries–double-star systems that are too close for the individual stars to be discerned by any telescope but, through the analysis of their light, have been found to be two individual stars rapidly revolving around one another. An assistant at the Leipzig Observatory from 1867, Vogel became director of a private observatory at Bothkamp, Ger., in 1870. His early work centred on the study of planetary spectra (the characteristic wavelengths of the light from the planets) to obtain data on the planetary atmospheres; it was published in his Spectra der Planeten (1874; ‘Spectra of the Planets’). In 1874 he joined the staff of the new Astrophysical Observatory at Potsdam and in 1882 became its director. He died on 13 Aug 1907.

In 1887 Vogel began a program of spectroscopic measurement of the radial motions of the stars and introduced the use of photography in stellar spectroscopy. In the course of his work he found that the star Algol is accompanied by a dark companion (about the size of the Sun) that periodically eclipses it, thus accounting for Algol’s periodic and regular variations in brightness. Vogel is also noted for his work in stellar classification. First proposed in 1874 and revised in 1895, the Vogel system is based on the previous work of an Italian astronomer, Angelo Secchi.

Abd-ul-Hamid II, Istanbul, Turkey

Tyrant, Nicked named ‘The Great Assassin’ he was the last sultan of Turkey. He promulgated the first Ottoman constitution in 1876, but his reign was notable for his cruel suppression of revolts in the Balkins, which led to wars with Russia (1877-8), and especially for the Armenian massacres of the 1894 – 6. A reform movement by the revolutionary Young Turks forced him to summon a parliament in 1908, where he was deposed and exiled in 1909. [Ed: His is a worst case example of Thuban in paran with Saturn].

John Graham Chambers, Llanelli, United Kingdom

Sportsman, Journalist, Chambers devised the Marquess of Queensberry rules used in boxing. He had a distinguished career as a rower for Cambridge, which he then served as coach between 1871-1874. He founded the Amateur Athletic Club and helped organise the Amateur Athletic Association in 1880. He also edited a weekly journal from 1871 to his death on 4 March 1883.

Marian Adams, Boston, Massachusetts

Photographer, Intellectual, Marion Adams presided over a intellectual salon in Boston in 1872 and then was the first woman to develop a serious interest in photography. After the death of her father in 1885 she sank into a deep depression and eventually committed suicide. The bronze monument commissioned for her grave in Washington was executed by Augustus Saint-Gaudens and is generally acknowledged his masterpiece. Sometimes called ‘Grief’ it depicts a seated, cowled figure. [Ed: In many ways her troubled mind is symbolised by Facies with her Mercury as well as Zosma in paran with her Venus].

Saint Bernadette Soubiros, Lourdes, France

Saint, Bernadette Soubiros is known for the visions she had which led to the foundation of the shrine at Lourdes. Born to a poor family, she was the eldest of nine children. She contracted cholera in 1854 and also suffered from a number of other ailments including asthma. Between 11 Feb and 16 Jul 1858 she had a series of visions of the Virgin Mary who revealed herself with the words ‘I am the Immaculate Conception’. Strong opposition from her family and religious and civil authorities did not deter her as she transmitted the messages she heard. To escape public attention she boarded at a local school run by nuns and in 1866 the Sisters of Charity accepted her as a novice. She remained there until her death on 16 Apr 1879..

Montgomery Ward, Chatham, New Jersey

Businessman, U.S. merchant who introduced the mail-order method of selling general merchandise and who founded the great mail-order house of Montgomery Ward & Company, Inc. [Ed Mirach in paran with Saturn showing his natural leadership skills]. In 1859 Ward became a salesman in a general store in St. Joseph, Mich. and later he was made manager. While working in rural areas as a travelling salesman, he became aware of the hard-pressed farmers’ resentment of the middlemen’s profit. This observation led Ward to conceive the idea of buying goods wholesale for cash and selling them by mail at a low mark-up for cash. In August 1872, with a capital of $1,600, Ward issued his first catalogue, a single sheet listing about 150 items. His brother-in-law, George R. Thorne, bought a half interest in the business for $500 in 1873. The 1875 catalogue introduced another novelty–a money-back guarantee of customer satisfaction. By 1888 annual sales had reached $1,000,000. At Ward’s death, they were $40,000,000. In 1886 Ward, while retaining the presidency, turned the management over to Thorne and his five sons. During the next 20 years Ward devoted much of his time to the preservation of the natural assets of the Chicago lakefront and vigorously opposed attempts to build public or other structures in the area that is now Grant Park. He died on 7 Dec 1913.

Joshua Slocum, Wilmot, Canada

Adventurer, Slocum was the first man in recorded history to sail around the world single handedly. He joined the merchant navy at 16 and published several accounts of his travels. In April, 1895 he set sail from Boston in his 36 foot converted fishing boat named ‘Spray’. It took him 3 years to circumnavigate the globe. In 1899 he published the account of his solo adventure in ‘Sailing Alone Around the World’. Slocum set sail in 1909 to the Bahamas but was lost at sea. His boat nor his body were ever found and he was pronounced legally dead in 1924.

Gerard Manley Hopkins, Essex, England

Poet, Hopkins is best known for his original and lyrical style of poetry. Although he remained unpublished during his lifetime, his poetry has been a significant influence in 20th century literature. [Ed: Spica on the nadir of his chart in paran with Mercury, shows how we remember him for the brilliance of his words]. The eldest of nine children he won a scholarship in 1863 to study at Balliol College, Oxford. In 1866 he was received into the Roman Catholic Church and the following year left Oxford with a distinguished academic record. In 1868 he entered the Jesuit novitiate and vowed not to write anything unrelated to his profession. In 1874, he went to Wales to study theology and there in 1875, started to write again. He was ordained a priest in 1877 and served as preacher and parish priest in various cities. He was appointed professor of Greek literature at University College, Dublin in 1884 but he was in poor health, physically and mentally. It was during this time that he wrote his ‘terrible sonnets’ and developed a talent for musical composition and drawing. Friends urged him to publish his work but he resisted. He died of typhoid fever on 8 Jun 1889. His work was first published posthumously in 1918 but it wasn’t until a second edition in 1930 that his work was recognised as the most original and influential of his time.

Thomas Barnardo, Dublin, Dublin, Ireland

Social Worker, Barnardo was a pioneer in social work who founded more than 90 homes for destitute children. Under his direction, the children were given care and instruction of high quality despite the then unusual policy of unlimited admittance.

Barnardo’s father, of an exiled Spanish Protestant family, emigrated from Hamburg, Ger., to Ireland. Barnardo himself went to London in 1866 to train as a Protestant medical missionary to China. While studying medicine he became superintendent of a ‘ragged school’ (free school for poor children) in the East End of London, where, in 1867, he founded a juvenile mission. The first of ‘Dr. Barnardo’s homes’ for destitute boys was founded in 1870 and his first home for girls in 1876. The homes were chartered in 1899 as the National Incorporated Association for the Reclamation of Destitute Waif Children. He died in 1905.

Peter Carl Faberge, Saint Petersburg, Russia

Jeweller, Goldsmith, Faberge is considered to be one of the greatest jewellers and decorative artists. He was educated throughout Europe and took over his father’s business in 1870. He began to manufacture a variety of decorative objects which were much sought after not only in Russia but throughout Europe. The most famous of these were the famous imperial Easter eggs, much sought after by Russian and other royalty. The first of these was commissioned by Tsar Alexander III in 1884. The Faberge workshops continued to produce them until the Russian Revolution of 1917. Faberge then went into exile and died in 1920.

Auguste Escoffier, Paris, France

Chef, Escoffier was known as the ‘king of chefs and the chef of kings’. He started his career at the age of 12. In 1890 he was given charge of the kitchens of the new Savoy Hotel in London. It was here that he created his international reputation with creations such as the ‘Peach Melba’ named after the famous singer Nellie Melba, when she stayed there in 1893. In 1899 he moved to the Carlton where he spent the next 23 years building up its reputation for haute cuisine. Emperor William II of Germany said to Escoffier, ‘I am the Emperor of Germany but you are the emperor of chefs.’ He dedicated 62 years to his profession and was awarded the Legion of Honour in 1920 in recognition of his promotion of French cuisine. He died on 12 Feb 1935.

Ellen Terry, Coventry, United Kingdom

Actress, English actress and stage performer who became one of the most famous and popular stage personalities in Great Britain and North America. She was leading lady to Sir Henry Irving for 24 years and formed one of the great partnerships of the theatre. She also developed the famous ‘paper courtship’ with George Bernard Shaw in the 1890’s. This was considered one of the most brilliant correspondences in the history of English letter writing. [Ed: Zuben Eschamali with Jupiter giving her an exalted status or success]. She made her debut in the theatre at the age of nine in 1856. At 16 she left the theatre to marry the painter, G F Watts who was more than three times her age. The marriage lasted just 10 months as Watts wealthy patroness was determined to get rid of her. After much persuasion, Terry returned to the theatre and in 1867 made her first appearance opposite Henry Irving. She again left the theatre the following year to live with Edward Godwin, who became the father of her children. After the failure of the relationship with Godwin, she again returned to the stage in 1877. Terry joined Irving in the theatrical partnership when she was 31 and only severed the relationship in 1901, having grown too old to play the roles. In 1925 she was made Dame Grand Cross of the British empire and died three years later on 21 July 1928.

Joseph Pullitzer, Mako, Hungary

Newspaper Editor, Publisher, Pullitzer was one of the most powerful journalists and established the Pullitzer Prizes for fiction, poetry, drama, music and various categories of newspaper work. Reared in Budapest, Pullitzer wanted a military career but was rejected for service in both the Austrian an British armies. In 1864, a US agent persuaded him to emigrate to the USA as a recruit for the Union Army during the American Civil War. After the war, he worked as a journalist and eventally bought and sold several newspapers including several in New York. His career saw him wield extensive influence in both politics and journalism. He died on 29 Oct 1911.

William James Pirrie, Quebec, Canada

Shipbuilder, Pirrie is best known as the builder of the liner ‘Titanic’. He controlled the largest ship building firm in the world. He became an apprentice in 1862 and by the time he was 27, he was a partner in the firm. His extensive experience saw the firm build some of the largest ships in the world including the ‘Titanic’, ‘Olympic’ and ‘Britannic’. [Ed: Saturn in paran with Markab shows his desire to build these big ‘reliable’ structures while at the same time Saturn in paran with Phact shows his desire to break new shipbuilding ground by building such a large vessal]. He also pioneered the use of diesel engines in ocean going liners. He died at sea on 7 June 1924.

Jesse James, Centerville, Missouri

Outlaw, Jesse James together with his brother, Frank became the most notorious outlaw of the American West. [Procyon in paran to his Venus showed his difficulties in following societies value systems]. At the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861, he joined a guerrilla band and served the Confederate forces until the end of the war. He started his lawless career by robbing a bank on 13 Feb 1866. His gang grew and by 1873 began holding up trains as well as banks, stagecoaches, stores and individuals. On 7 Sep 1876, a robbery went badly and the entire gang except for Jesse and his brother, were captured or killed. In 1881 the governor of Missouri offered a reward of ten thousand dollars for Jesse and his brother’s capture or death. Living under an assumed name, Jesse James was killed on 3 Apr 1882 by a gang member who then claimed the reward.

Bram Stoker, Dublin, Dublin, Ireland

Novelist, Author of the popular horror tale Dracula. Although an invalid in early childhood–he could not stand or walk until he was seven–he outgrew his weakness to become an outstanding athlete and football player at the University of Dublin. After 10 years in the civil service at Dublin Castle, during which he was also an unpaid drama critic for the Dublin Mail, he made the acquaintance of actor Sir Henry Irving, and from 1878 until Irving’s death 27 years later, he acted as his manager. Turning to fiction late in life, he published The Snake’s Pass in 1890, and in 1897 his masterpiece, Dracula, appeared. (Ed: Dracula is an excellant expression of Alcyone in paran with his Moon). Stoker wrote several other novels–among them The Mystery of the Sea (1902), The Jewel of Seven Stars (1904), and The Lady of the Shroud (1909)–but none of them approached the popularity, or, the quality, of Dracula. The Man Who Wrote Dracula, a biography by Daniel Farson, was published in 1975. Stoker died on 20 April 1912.

Koshaku Togo, Kagoshima, Japan

Admiral, Togo led the Imperial Japanese fleet to victory in the Russo-Japanese War. He directed the blockade of Port Arthur, a Russian base on the Yellow Sea. Russian desperation after 10 months of siege, saw them send their Baltic fleet of 35 ships to break the blockade. Togo executed a manoeuvre that saw his ships aligned to all fire broadsides at the Russian fleet. This resulted in 33 of the 35 Russian ships being destroyed and victory to the Japanese. This was the first time, in the modern era, that an Asian power had defeated a European nation. [Ed Dubhe in paran with his Saturn gave Togo the determination required to enable him to defeat a western fleet.] As a result, Western nations began to consider Japan in a different light.

Caroline Yale, Charlotte, Vermont

Educator, US educator of the deaf and long time principal of the Clarke School for the Deaf. She joined the school in 1870, and remained for 63 years. She became associate principal in 1873 and principal in 1886. [Ed: Arcturus in paran with her Moon giving her leadership skill in improving the life of others].

Under her direction the school added athletic and manual training and, in 1889, classes to train teachers for the deaf. She was director of the American Associaton to Promote Teaching of Speech to the Deaf and author of ‘Years of Buildinh, Memories of a Pioneer in a Special Field of Education, published in 1931. She died 2 July 1933.

Emma Lazarus, New York, New York

Poet, Lazarus is best known for her sonnet ‘The New Colossus’ written to the Statue of Liberty. She learned languages and the classics at an early age and her first volume of poetry was published in 1867 and the second in 1871. She also wrote a prose romance based on Goethe’s life and translated the work of Heinrish Heine. ‘The New Colossus’ was written in 1883 and expresses her vision of America as a refuge for the oppressed:

Give me your tired, your poor Your huddled masses, yearning to breathe free, The wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these the homeless, tempest-lost to me, I lift my lamp beside the golden door!

The poem was inscribed onto a bronze plaque inside the base of the statue and was dedicated in 1886. A series of prose poems was published in 1887. She died on 19 Nov 1887.

Ivan Petrovich Pavlov, Ryazan’, Ryazanskaya Oblast, Russia

Physiologist, Pavlov is best known for his studies and development of the theory of conditioned reflex. In his classic experiment, he showed how dogs could be trained to salivate at the sound of a bell which was associated with food. He went on to develop this theory and its importance in human behaviour patterns. Pavlov was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1904. He died on 27 Feb 1936.

Charlotte Ray, New York, New York

Lawyer, Ray was the first black woman lawyer in the USA. She received her law degree in 1872 and was admitted to the bar that year. She was the first female lawyer in the District of Columbia and the first black woman layer in the country. However, racial prejudices prevented her from pursuing a legal career as she did not generate enough business to maintain a legal practice. She returned to New York in 1879 where she taught in public schools. Little or nothing is known of her later life after her marriage in the late 1880’s. She died on 4 Jan 1911.

Cesar Ritz, Niederwald, Switzerland

Hotelier, The founder of the famous Paris hotel which has become a byword for elegance and luxury. Ritz started his career in hospitality in one of Paris’ famous restaurants and remained there until the Siege of Paris 1870 brought food and fuel shortages that caused the demise of the restaurant. He continued to work in hotels and to brush with the rich and famous. he served as a guide to the likes of Cornelius Vanderbilt and J P Morgan when they came to Paris. As the rich moved across Europe, Ritz followed them. He worked in various resort areas such as Lucerne and Monte Carlo. It was there he met the celebrated chef, Auguste Escoffier and in 1887 they opened a restaurant together. So impressed was Richard D’Oyly Carte that he invited them to manage his newly opened hotel, the Savoy in London. Together they transformed London society to one that dined out. In 1898, with a loan from Marnier La Postelle (the grateful inventor of the liqueuer Grand Marnier, whose name was suggested by Ritz), he opened the Ritz. He died on 26 Oct 1918.

Sir Edward Albert Sharpey-Schafer, Hornsey, United Kingdom

Physician, Sharpey-Schafer is best known as the inventor of the prone pressure method of articifial respiration known as the Schafer method. The Royal Life Saving Society adopted this as the official method of resuscitation. He qualified in medicine in 1871 and subsequently received many honours for his research work. [Ed: His deep interest in advances in medicine and medical equipment is reflected by Ras Alhague in paran with his Mercury]. He died on 29 March 1935.

Herbert Lord Kitchener, Listowel, Ireland

Soldier, Kitchener is best remembered as the commander in chief of the British army during the Boer War and whose practice of interning enemy women and children established the practice of concentration camps. [Ed: Saladmelek with his Sun gives him the success that he seeks, but not compassion towards others]. He served in the Middle East in 1874 and was appointed govern of the Sudan in 1886. He joined the South African war in 1899 and was made commander in chief in Nov 1900. He returned to England in 1902 and was knighted. He then went to India and remained there until 1909. He was made proconsul of Egypt in 1911 and when war broke out in 1914 he was appointed secretary of state for war. His face appeared on British recruitment posters throughout the empire. As a result of his distaste for teamwork and difficulty with cabinet colleagues his responsibilities for recruitment and mobilisation were eroded but he refused to quit his position. Kitchener drowned when the ship he was on was torpedoed by the Germans on 5 Jun 1916.

Albert Spalding, Byron, Illinois

Baseball Player, Sporting Good, American professional baseball player and sporting-goods manufacturer, who contributed to the development of professional baseball and manufactured gear for many sports played in his day. He pitched for the Boston Red Stockings in the National Association (1871-75) and pitched for and managed the Chicago National League Club, the White Stockings (1876-77). In 1876 he and his brother James founded the sporting-goods manufacturing company that later became known as A.G. Spalding and Brothers. He remained with the Chicago club after his playing days as president (1882-91) and was a practical organizer in baseball until business took up most of his time in the 1890s. Spalding organized baseball tours abroad (to England and Ireland in 1874, around the world in 1889) and became an official ambassador of goodwill for baseball. He died on 9 Sept 1915.

Spalding’s Official Baseball Guide–begun in 1878 and issued annually after 1880 until the 1940s, when it was amalgamated with official major-league guides–was a sort of unofficial baseball guide. Spalding also wrote a history of baseball, America’s National Game (1911), and he was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1939.

John Milne, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Seismologist, Milne is known as the inventor of the seismograph. He originally worked as a mining engineer and then as a geologist. In 1875, he accepted a post as professor of geology and mining in Tokyo. In 1880 he invented the seismograph and travelled throughout Japan conducting surveys of Japan’s widespread earthquakes. He also set up over 900 seismological stations to monitor earthquake activity. He returned to England in 1894 and established a private seismological station on the Isle of Wight. As scretary of the Seismological Committee of the British Association, he set up an international network of seismological stations. His published his findings in two works which were issued in 1883 and 1898. He died on 30 July 1913.

Charles Henry Dow, Sterling, Connecticut

Financial Publisher, Dow founded the Dow Jones company, and in 1884, it published a compilation of the first average of US stock prices. This became known as the Dow Jones averages. [Ed: Saulocin culminating with Mars shows how he was able to motivate others with his idea]. Dow became a journalist in his early twenties and moved to New York City in 1880 to take up a position as a financial journalist. Together with Edward Jones, he founded the Dow Jones Company in 1882. The company published bulletins that were delivered to financial houses in Wall Street with the last bulletin of the day including a newssheet. This newssheet became the forerunner of the Wall Street Journal that began publication on 8 July 1889. He served as its first editor and made a name for himself as a financial expert. His columns became the basis of the Dow theory of market analysis. Dow died on 4 Dec 1902.

Melvil Dewey, Adams Center, New York

Librarian, Dewey is best known as the father of the Dewey Decimal System of Classification widely used in library cataloguing. He graduated from Amherst in 1874 and dedicated his life to the development of libraries and the training of librarians. [Ed: Rukbat in paran with his Saturn is a good expression of his desire tedious task of creating a book classification system]. He died on 26 Dec 1931.

Charles Taze Russell, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Religious Leader, Russell was the founder of the International Bible Students Association which eventually became the Jehovah’s Witnesses. He left established churches by the age of 20 because he could not come to terms with the idea of eternal damnation and God’s mercy. An encounter with Adventists who preached God’s plan of eternal salvation set him on a road of discovery. [Ed Alpheratz with his Venus] With the help of tutors, he learnt to use Greek and Hebrew dictionaries to study the Bible. He left his haberdashery business in 1872 and dedicated himself to forming and leading Bible classes. In 1877 he preached of Christ’s return based on his own complex mathematical calculations and decreed that this had happened in 1874. He also predicted the ‘end of Gentile times’ that would come in 1914. Russell devoted himself to preaching and in 1879 founded a Bible journal ‘The Watchtower’ and in 1884 the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society. His published works reached a circulation of 16 million and were translated into 35 languages. He died on 31 Oct 1916.

John Harvey Kellogg, Tyrone Lake, MI, USA

Physician, Health Food Pioneer, Kellogg is best remembered as the father of the breakfast cereal and responsible for the development of the breakfast food industry. [Ed: Rukbat in paran with his Mercury shows his good business sense]. He received his medical degree in 1875. He was a vegetarian and Seventh Day Adventist and as superindentendent of a health institute, developed a variety of nut and vegetable products to add variety to patients’ diets. [Ed: His devotion to diet and issues around diet was a reflection of Ras Algethi culminating in paran with his Sun]. He also developed cornflakes as a breakfast food which they had not been previously. His brother formed the well known cereal company which bears the family name. Kellogg died on 14 Dec 1943.

Helen Magill White, Providence, Rhode Island

Educator, Educator who was the first woman in the United States to earn a Ph.D. degree. Magill received an A.B. from Swarthmore College in 1873. In 1877 she earned a Ph.D. in Greek from Boston University. For the next four years she studied classics at the University of Cambridge. On her return to the United States Magill became a private school principal and, in 1883, was appointed director of the Howard Collegiate Institute of West Bridgewater, Mass., a women’s college. From 1887 to 1888 she helped organize the annex for women at Princeton University. In 1890 Magill married Andrew Dickson White, then the former president of Cornell University. She ended her academic career as she accompanied him on his travels as minister to Russia (1892-94) and ambassador to Germany (1897-1903). She died 28 Oct 1944.

George Eastman, Waterville, New York

Manufacturer, Eastman introduced the first Kodak camera and made it a byword of popular photography. He started life working in insurance and eventually perfected the process of making dry plates for photography. He founded the Eastman Dry Plate and Film Company in 1884 and in 1888, marketed the first Kodak camera. A year later he introduced transparent film and by 1892 the company was renamed the Eastman Kodak Company. The brownie camera was introduced eight years later and by 1927, the company held a virtual monopoly on the photographic industry in North America. He funded several schools and also introduced profit sharing for employees. Eastman died on 14 Mar 1932.

Percival Lowell, Boston, Massachusetts

Astronomer, Lowell predicted the existence of the planet Pluto and started the search which led to its discovery. Scion of a wealthy family, Lowell travelled widely in the Far East and published several works. In the 1890’s, inspired by the discovery of the ‘canals’ of Mars, he devoted his time to astronomy. He built a private observatory and among his observations was the irregularities of the orbit of Uranus which he attributed to an unknown planet beyond Neptune. In 1905 he organised a systematic search for the planet and in 1915 he published ‘Memoirs of a Trans-Neptunian Planet’. [His focused motivation to search out the unknown planet can be seen as an expression of Markab with his Mars]. Pluto was discovered 14 years after his death on 12 Nov 1916.

Robert Koldewey, Brunswick, Germany

Archaelogist, Koldewey is best remembered for his discovery of the ruins of ancient Babylon. Originally an architect, his field studies in archaeology began in 1882. He also taught architecture between 1887-1897. In 1897 he chose a site in southern Iraq and commenced excavation on 26 Mar 1899. He continued digging almost uninterrupted for 18 years and found significant structure including the temple of Marduk which included an astronomical observatory, the remains of the fabled hanging gardens of Babylon, one of the wonders of the ancient world and the famed Gate of Ishtar in the fortress wall of the city. His findings were published in a book ‘The Exacavations of Babylon’ in 1914. He died on 4 Feb 1925.

Matthias Zdarsky, Brno, Czech Republic

Ski Instructor, Ski instructor, considered the father of Alpine skiing, who was probably the first regular ski instructor in Austria. Zdarsky taught himself to ski as the easiest way to reach the market village of Lilienfeld in winter from his mountain pastures of Habernreith [Ed: Aculeus with his Saturn shows that he was a person who sought practical solutions to every day problems, In addition, Ras Alhague with his Saturn indicated that having found those solutions he wanted to pass them on to others). He had to adapt the Nordic skiing techniques used on relatively flat ground to the Alpine terrain. In 1897 he published Die alpine Lilienfelder Skifahrtechnik, the first ski instruction book. In it he publicized the technique of requiring one ski to be extended at an acute angle to the fall line, a line from an upper point to a lower directly below on a slope. He first used a single pole to help in steering and turning but soon changed to two poles, which became standard. Zdarsky also improved ski design and ski bindings and organized downhill races. He was a ski instructor for the Austrian Army during World War I and survived an avalanche that caused 80 fractures and dislocations. He invented devices that allowed him to ski again. He died on 20 June 1940.

Robert Peary, Cresson, Pennsylvania

Explorer, Peary is acknowledged as having led the first expedition to reach the North Pole. [Ed: Alpheratz in paran with Jupiter] He entered the US Navy in 1881. With several companions, he made several attempts to reach the North Pole. His third attempt in 1908 was successful and he reached the North Pole with his companion and four Eskimo guides. He died on 20 Feb 1920.

L Frank Baum, Chittenango, New York

Writer, Baum is the American writer known for his series of books for children about the imaginary land of Oz.

Baum began his career as a journalist, initially in Aberdeen, S.D., then in Chicago. His first book, Father Goose (1899), was a commercial success, and he followed it the next year with the even more popular Wonderful Wizard of Oz. A modern fairy tale, it tells the story of Dorothy, a Kansas farm girl who is blown by a cyclone to the Land of Oz, where such memorable characters as a Tin Woodman, a Scarecrow, and a Cowardly Lion befriend her. In 1901 it was produced as a musical spectacle in Chicago. Its film version, in 1939, became a cinema classic and was made familiar to later generations of children through frequent showings on television.

Baum wrote 13 more Oz books, and another continued the series after his death in 1919. Using a variety of pen names as well as his own, Baum wrote some 60 books, the bulk of them juveniles, popular in their day.

Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Ratnagiri, India

Philosopher, Nationalist, Tilak was a philosopher, scholar, mathematician and nationalist who laid the foundations of Indian nationalism and independence. His early role as a teacher saw him develop the Deccan Education Society in 1884 that aimed to educate the Indian masses in English as he and his associates considered English to be a powerful vehicle for conveying democratic ideas and ideals. He also started two newspapers to awaken political consciousness in his countrymen. He did this by kindling his people’s pride in their history, culture and religion. For his efforts, he was charged with sedition in 1897 and at his trial he was idolised and given the name Lokamanya (Beloved Leader of the People). His efforts paved the way for Indian independence fifty years later. He was imprisoned again for sedition in 1907and, while in jail, he wrote his opus, which was an unothodx interpretation of the Indian sacred text, the Bhagavadgita. He had previously written another work, Orion, which demonstrated by astronomical calculations, that many hymns in the Rig Veda, the oldest Hindu scripture, could not have been composed later than 4000 BCE. He was released from prison in 1914 and almost immediately launched the Home Rule League. In 1916, having rejoined the Congress Party, he signed the historic Lucknow Pact with Mohammed Ali Jinnah. The pact was a Hindu-Muslim accord pledged to unite Hindus and Muslims in a single Indian nationalism. Gandhi called him the ‘Maker of Modern India’. Tilak died on 1 Aug 1920.

Alfred Deakin, Melbourne, Australia

Statesman, lawyer, Alfred Deakin was an Australian prime minister (1903-4, (1905-8, 1909-10) , was educated at Melbourne Grammar School and Melbourne University, where he studied law. In 1879 he went into politics. He became minister of public works and water supply, and solicitor general of Victoria; then under the Commonwealth, attorney general and prime minister. He was one of the architects of federation, he established the industrial arbitration system and the first protective tariff, outlined defence policies, advocated the White Australia policy and introduced the Commonwealth Literary Fund. He died in 1919 [Ed: His life in many ways is an expression of his Jupiter in paran with Agena and his role as a founding father in Australian nationhood is expressed by Sirius with his Saturn].

Fredick Archer, Cheltenham, United Kingdom

Jockey, Archer rode his first race in 1870 at aged 13, and during his career rode 2748 winners, including the Derby five times. His record of 246 winners in one season remained intact until it was beaten by Gorden Richards in 1933. He died young in 1886 at age 29.

Kate Barrett, Falmouth, Virginia

Social reformer, Barrett was an American physician who directed the rescue-home movement for unwed mothers in the United States. Barrett became interested in the issue of prostitution while helping her husband, Robert S. Barrett, a minister whom she married in 1876. She earned an M.D. from the Women’s Medical College of Georgia in 1892. The next year she opened a rescue home in Atlanta, which became affiliated with Charles Crittenton’s national chain of Florence Crittenton homes for unwed mothers.

In 1897 Barrett became vice president of the Florence Crittenton Mission, which operated more than 50 homes nationwide, and from 1909 until her death she served as the organization’s president. She guided the rescue-home movement away from its focus on prostitute reformation and toward a concern with the social welfare of the unwed mother, a shift that helped to make the unwed mother an acceptable subject of philanthropy. [Ed: A lovely expression of Zosma with her Jupiter] .She died in 1925.

Jean-Eugene Atget, Libourne, France

Photographer, Orphaned very young he lived with his uncle until he was old enough to go to sea as a cabin boy. After several voyages, he abandoned the sea for the stage. He soon fell in love with an actress much older than himself, and together they toured the provincial towns of France. Atget’s ungainly appearance, however, relegated him to minor parts and low wages. By the age of 40 he was no longer able to earn an living as an actor and he was forced into a new profession. For a short time he tried to be an artist but then decided to become a photographer. >From that time onwards he decided to record the many aspects of life in Paris. By 1921 he was destitute, however, he received his only ever paid commission, an assignment to document the brothels of Paris. This work was the only work that received recognition in his lifetime. After the turn of the century he ate nothing but bread, sugar and milk convinced that all other foods were poisonous. This Spartan diet and years of hard work left him physically broken. He died in 1927.

Jules Wagner-Jauregg, Wels, Austria

Psychiatrist, Austrian psychiatrist and neurologist, whose treatment of syphilitic meningoencephalitis, or general paresis, by the artificial induction of malaria constituted the first example of shock therapy. The method brought a previously incurable fatal disease under medical control and earned him the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1927. While a member of the psychiatric staff (1883-89) at the University of Vienna, Wagner-Jauregg noted that persons suffering from certain nervous disorders showed a marked improvement after contracting febrile (characterized by fever) infections, and he suggested (1887) that such infections be deliberately induced as a method of treatment for the insane, especially recommending malaria because it could be controlled with quinine. As professor of psychiatry and neurology at the University of Graz, Austria (1889-93), he attempted to induce fevers in mental patients through the administration of tuberculin (an extract of the tubercle bacillus), but the program met with only limited success. In 1917, occupying a similar post at the University of Vienna, where he also directed the university hospital for nervous and mental diseases (1893-1928), Wagner-Jauregg was able to produce malaria in paresis victims, with dramatically successful results. Although malaria treatment of the disease was later supplanted largely by administration of antibiotics, his work led to the development of fever therapy and shock therapy for a number of mental disorders. He was also known as an authority on cretinism and other thyroid disorders. He died on 27 Sept 1940.

Eugen Bleuler, Zollikon, Switzerland

Psychologist, Bleuler is credited with introducing the term ‘schizophrenia’ to describe a mental disorder originally known as dementia praecox. He studied medicine and served as the Director of the Burgholzli Asylum in Zurich from 1898 to 1927. He first advocated the term ‘schizophrenia’ in 1908 after a study of over 600 patients. His introduction of concepts fundamental to the analysis of schizophrenia changed the way in which it was diagnosed and treated. He was an advocate of Freud’s theories and his assistant in the early 1900’s was Carl Jung. He died on 15 Jul 1939.

Milton Hershey, Hockersville, Pennsylvania

Manufacturer, Philantropist, Hershey founded the corporation which helped popularize chocolate candy throughout the world. After finishing his schooling, Hershey served an apprenticeship to a confectioner and in 1876 established his own candy shop. His attempts to manufacture candy were not successful until he set up the Lancaster Caramel Co which he sold in 1900. He then turned his attention to developing the perfect chocolate bar and in 1903 established a factory which grew to become the biggest chocolate manufactuing plant in the world. The town of Hershey grew up around it and in 1909, Hershey established the Milton Hershey School for disadvantaged and needy boys. In 1918, the bulk of his fortune was turned over to a foundation which supported the school. Milton Hershey died on 13 Oct 1945.

Annie Besant, London, United Kingdom

Theosophist, Reformer, Annie Besant is best known for her work with the Theosophical Society as well as her promotion of self-rule for India. She was married and separated from her husband in 1873. She became involved in a variety of causes including Fabian socialism, became a theosophist in 1889. She took on an active role, lecturing and writing for the society. She was president of the Society from 1907 until her death in 1933 and her writings are among the best expositions of theosophical belief. She lived in India and was involved in humanitarian and educational work as well as being involved with the Indian Home Rule League. She also promoted her protege, Krishnamurti, who she believed was the next world teacher. She died on 20 Sep 1933.

Daniel Hale Williams, Hollidaysburg, Pennsylvania

Physician, American physician and founder of Provident Hospital in Chicago, credited with the first successful heart surgery. Williams graduated from Chicago Medical College in 1883. In response to the lack of opportunity for blacks in the medical professions, he founded (1891) the nation’s first interracial hospital in the United States. He was a surgeon at Provident (1892-93, 1898-1912) and surgeon in chief of Freedmen’s Hospital, Washington, D.C. (1894-98), where he established another school for black nurses. Williams performed daring heart surgery on July 10, 1893. Although contemporary medical opinion disapproved of surgical treatment of heart wounds, Williams opened the patient’s thoracic cavity without aid of blood transfusions or modern anaesthetics and antibiotics. The patient lived at least 20 years following the surgery. Williams’ procedure is cited as the first recorded repair of the pericardium; some sources, however, cite a similar operation performed by H.C. Dalton of St. Louis in 1891. He died on 4. Aug 1931.

Rudolf Diesel, Paris, France

Engineer, Diesel is best known as the inventor of the internal combustion engine which bears his name. His parents were German and he lived in Paris until the family was deported to England in 1870 when the Franco-German war broke out. He was later sent to study in Germany. In 1890, he invented the concept of the internal combustion engine. In 1892 he obtained a German development patent and published his findings the following year. Receiving encouragement and support from various firms, he developed a 25 horsepower model in 1897. This brought him immediate success and great wealth. He died on 29 Sep 1913 after falling from a trans-Channel steamer on his way to London.

Max Planck, Kiel, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany

Physicist, Planck was a theoretical physicist who originated the quantum theory. He had a great love of music but chose science as a career and studied in both Munich and Berlin receiving his doctorate in 1879. His discoveries in 1900 initiated the field of quantum physics and he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1918. He died on 4 Oct 1947.

Emmeline Pankhurst, Manchester, United Kingdom

Suffragette, Pankhurst was the champion of women’s suffrage and her 40 year campaign culminated in British women receiving the vote in 1927. She married in 1879 and her husband was responsible for drafting the first woman suffragist bill in Great Britain. Ten years later she formed the Women’s Franchise League that was successful in winning women the right to vote in local elections but not in elections for the House of Commons. She held several municipal offices and in 1903 formed the Women’s Social and Political Union which attracted much attention when two members were ejected from a Liberal Party meeting for raising questions on votes for women, were arrested on the street for technical assault on police and were imprisoned. The WSPU became more militant and Pankhurst served several jail terms. When World War I broke she toured the USA and Canada encouraging the mobilisation of women. She returned to England in 1926 and was chosen as Cosnservative candidate but her poor health kept her from taking up the nomination. She died on 14 June 1928.

Carl Auer Welsbach, Vienna, Austria

Chemist, Austrian chemist and engineer who invented the gas mantle, thus allowing the greatly increased output of light by gas lamps.

In 1885 Welsbach discovered and isolated the elements neodymium and praseodymium from a mixture called didymium, which was previously considered an element. His interest in rare-earth elements continued, and he found that a fabric impregnated with a mixture of thorium nitrate and cerium nitrate could be made into a mantle that glowed brightly when heated by a gas flame. Patented in 1885, the Welsbach mantle greatly improved gas lighting and, although largely supplanted by the incandescent lamp, is still widely used in kerosene and other lanterns. In 1898 Welsbach introduced the first metallic filament for incandescent lamps. Although the osmium he used was too rare for general use, his improvement paved the way for the tungsten filament and the modern light bulb. (see also Index: filament lamp) Welsbach also developed misch metal, a mixture of cerium and other rare earths, which he combined with iron to make Auer’s metal, the first improvement over flint and steel for making sparks since ancient times. It is used in cigarette lighters and in strikers for lighting gas jets. He died 4 Aug 1929.

Isaac Newton Lewis, Salem, Pennsylvania, USA

Inventor, Lewis is best known for his invention of the Lewis machine gun widely used during World War I. [Ed: Pollux culminating with his Sun rising shows that his career is linked to research and thinking but in a utilitarian manner]. He graduated from West Point in 1884 and served in the US military where he patented an artillery ranging device in 1891, the first of a string of military inventions. He patented the machine gun in 1911 but finding no interest in the USA, he took his invention to Europe, having retired from the army in 1913. There it was taken up and he built a factory in Belgium. With the outbreak of World War I, he transferred his operations to England. More than a hundred thousand Lewis guns were used during the war and it was only later, after much testing and controversy, was it adopted by the US army. [Ed: Lewis’ Sun in paran with El Nath, the horn of the bull and a symbol of a weapon, for the later period of his life shows how his name became linked with his invention of the machine gun]. Lewis died on 9 Nov 1931.

Samuel Alexander, Sydney, Australia

Philosopher, Alexander studied at Oxford and in 1893 was appointed to the chair of philosophy at Manchester University. His growing concern for the situation of European Jewry led him to introduce Chaim Weizmann, his colleague at Manchester, to Arthur Balfour – this meeting led to the Balfour Declaraton, establishing the principle of a Jewish national home.

Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Crowborough, United Kingdom

Novelist, Conan Doyle is best known as the creator of the famous detective, Sherlock Holmes. Conan Doyle trained as a physician and practiced medicine until 1891. His first Sherlock Holmes story, ‘A Study in Scarlet’ appeared in 1887. Other stories appeared but Conan Doyle soon tired of him and killed Holmes off in 1893. However, public pressure forced him to resurrect Holmes. He was knighted in 1902 for his work in South Africa during the Boer War. He died on 7 Jul 1930.

Alfred Dreyfus, Mulhouse, France

Controversial Figure, Dreyfus was tried for treason and this became known as the Dreyfus Affair which divided France along nationalistic, anti-Semitic factions versus left wing, anti-military factions. Dreyfus came from a wealthy Jewish family and settled for a military career in 1882 and rose to the rank of major by 1889. He served in the War Ministry but in 1894 was accused and arrested for selling secrets to the Germans. He was found guilty and sentenced to imprisonment on Devil’s Island. The case became notorious for its highly irregular legal proceedings as well as insufficient evidence. Public opinion was divided and by 1898 tensions escalated when Emile Zola published an open letter ‘J’ Accuse’ [I Accuse] in which he openly accused the military of the wrong conviction of Dreyfuss and the acquittal of the guilty party. After great social unrest, Dreyfuss was retried, found guilty but pardoned in 1899. Finally, in 1906 a civilian court overturned all convictions and reinstated him. He died on 12 Jul 1935.

Ludwig Zamenhof, Bialystok, Poland

Physician, Ocultist, Linguist, Russian physician and oculist who created the most important of the international, artificial languages — Esperanto. A Jew whose family spoke Russian and lived in an environment of racial and national conflict on the Polish-Russian borderland, Zamenhof dedicated himself to promoting tolerance, mainly through the development of an international language. After years of experiment in devising such a tongue, working under the pseudonym of Doktoro Esperanto, he published an expository textbook, Lingvo Internacia (1887; Dr. Esperanto’s International Language). His pseudonym, Esperanto (‘[one] who hopes’), was to become the language’s name. As well as continuing his medical career, Zamenhof worked to develop Esperanto and organize its adherents. The first Esperanto magazine appeared in 1889, the beginnings of formal organization in 1893. With some literary and linguistic skill, Zamenhof developed and tested his new language by translating a large number of works, including the Old Testament, Hamlet, Hans Christian Andersen’s Fairy Tales, and plays of Moliere, Goethe, and Nikolay Gogol. At the first international Esperanto congress at Boulogne, Fr. (1905), and at successive annual congresses in various European cities, Zamenhof delivered a number of memorable addresses, but he renounced formal leadership of the Esperanto movement at Krakow, Poland, in 1912. His Fundamento de Esperanto (1905; 17th ed., 1979; ‘Basis of Esperanto’) established the principles of Esperanto structure and formation. He died in Warsaw on 14 April 1917. Marjorie Boulton’s biography, Zamenhof, Creator of Esperanto, was published in 1960.

John Bartholomew, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Cartographer, Bartholomew was a cartographer and map and atlas publisher who improved the standards of British cartography and introduced into Great Britain the use of contours and systematic colour layering to show relief.

The eldest son of the Edinburgh map publisher John Bartholomew (1831-93), he concerned himself with producing new geographical works as well as with technical improvements in map production. He published major atlases of Scotland (1895) and England and Wales (1903) and initiated a great physical atlas, but only two volumes appeared, the Atlas of Meteorology (1899) and the Atlas of Zoogeography (1911). He also began compiling The Times Survey Atlas of the World, published in 1921 by his son John Bartholomew (1890-1962), who also edited the new Times Atlas of the World (1955). He died in 1920.

Rene Lalique, Ay, France

Jeweller, Lalique is best known for his jewelelry designs and his work in moulded glass. His jewellery designs were original and became a feature of the Art Noveau movement. Most of his designs featured women in sensuous poses and animals. A distinguishing characteristic was his use of materials such as horn and a lack of precious stones. He also experimented in glass having bought a factory in 1910. An order of perfume bottles established his trademark moulded glass bottles with iced surfaces and with patterns in relief. Lalique glass was used for luxury items in the 1920’s. He was also a great exponent of the use of glass in architecture and interior decoration. Lalique died on 5 May 1945.

James Barrie, Kirriemuir, United Kingdom

Dramatist, novelist, Barrie is best known as the creator of Peter Pan, the boy who refused to grow up.

The son of a weaver, Barrie never recovered from the shock he received at six from a brother’s death and its grievous effect on his mother, who dominated his childhood and retained that dominance thereafter. Throughout his life Barrie wished to recapture the happy years before his mother was stricken, and he retained a strong childlike quality in his adult personality.

Barrie wrote mostly for the theatre. His autobiographical novels were his early work and are marked by quaint Scottish dialect, whimsical humour and comic clowning, pathos, and sentimentality.

Barrie’s marriage in 1894 to the actress Mary Ansell was childless and apparently unconsummated. In 1897 he formed an attachment to Sylvia Llewellyn Davies, and it was to her sons, through whom he began to live again the experience of childhood, that he told his first Peter Pan stories, some of which were published in The Little White Bird (1902). The play Peter Pan, the Boy Who Wouldn’t Grow Up, was first produced in 1904. This play added a new character to the mythology of the English-speaking world in the figure of Peter Pan, and its theme of heroic boyhood triumphant over the seedy, middle-aged pirate Captain Hook has proved to have a lasting appeal.[Ed: Sadalsuud in paran with his Moon indicates that he can dwell on the happy side of life as a way of dealing with more difficult situations.]

Barrie’s idyll of reexperienced boyhood was followed by tragedy. His marriage ended in divorce in April 1910; Sylvia Davies, then a widow, died four months later; and two of her sons, to whom Barrie acted as guardian, were killed. Barrie was created a baronet in 1913 and was awarded the Order of Merit in 1922. He became president of the Society of Authors in 1928 and chancellor of the University of Edinburgh in 1930. He died in 1937.

Jane Adams, Cedarville, Illinois

Social Reformer, Feminist, After visiting Toynbee Hall in London she founded in 1899 the social settlement in Hull House, Chicago, which she led for the rest of her life. In 1910 she became the first woman president of the National Conference of Social Work, and in 1911 founded the national Federation of Settlements. She shared the Noble Peace Prize in 1931.

Owen Wister, North Kingstown, Rhode Island

Novelist, Novelist whose The Virginian (1902) helped establish the cowboy as an American folk hero and stock fictional character. Wister graduated from Harvard in 1882 and studied musical composition in Paris for two years. Ill health forced his return to the United States, and he spent the summer of 1885 in Wyoming. In the fall Wister entered Harvard Law School, graduating in 1888, and was admitted to the bar in 1889. He practiced for two years in Philadelphia, and in 1891, after the enthusiastic acceptance by Harper’s of two of his Western sketches, he devoted himself to a literary career. The Virginian introduced such themes as the conflict of its genteel heroine, a schoolteacher from the East, with her cowboy lover, who depends for his life on a harsh code of ethics. Its climactic gun duel is considered the first such ‘showdown’ in fiction. [Ed: Denebola culminating with his Moon shows Wister’s love of alternative lifestyles]. Wister died 21 July 1938.

Annie Oakley, Arcanum, Ohio

Markswoman, Oakley’s fame was her ability to shoot accurately. [Ed: Her fame is reflected in Spica culminating in paran with her Moon, showing that the people of the day saw her as ‘brilliant’ talented and skilled woman]. She was a member of ‘Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Troop’ and became a national celebrity. Her favourite tricks included shooting the end of a lighted cigarette, the thin edge of a playing card or a dime tosed into the air. The use of the term ‘Annie Oakley’ to denote a complimentary ticket was used for years as the hole punched into a complimentary pass resembled the bullet holes she fired into small cards during her performances. Oakley performed all over the USA and Europe. She died on 3 Nov 1926. [Ed: Her birth time has been set to pre dawn]

Grandma Moses, Greenwich, New York

Painter, Moses is a folk painter known for her simple and ingenuous painting style portraying rural life in America at the turn of the 19th and early 20th centuries. She left her parent’s home at 12 and worked as a hired girl, marrying in 1887. She and her husband farmed a property until the 1930’s when she retired due to advancing age. She created a series of paintings in 1938 and they depicted old-time rural activities and carried titles such as ‘Catching the Thanksgiving Turkey’ and Over the River to Grandma’s House’. By 1939 she was exhibiting all over the USA and Europe. She published her autobiography in 1952. Moses died on 31 Dec 1961. [Ed: Alphecca in paran with her Mars symbolises her hard but successful life. And Murzims setting in paran with her Sun indicates that is it in her later years that she choses to make a statement via her art].

Vesta Tilley, Bristol, United Kingdom

Comedian, Male Impersonator, Tilley was a music hall singer, comedian and the leading male impersonator of the day. [Ed: A nice expression of the illusionary side of Fomalhaut with Mercury]. Herself the daughter of a music hall performer, Vesta first appeared on stage at the age of three. She donned male attire for the first time two years later. By the age of 14, she was playing two London venues every night. From then until she retired in 1920, she had top billing as a male impersonator in shows in England as well as in the United States. In 1890 she married the man who composed many of her songs the most famous ones being, ‘The Piccadilly Johnny with the Little Glass Eye’ and ‘Following in Father’s Footsteps’. She died on 16 Sep 1952.

Rabindranath Tagore, Calcutta, India

Poet, Bengali poet, short-story writer, song composer, playwright, essayist, and painter who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913. He was highly influential in introducing the best of Indian culture to the West and vice versa, and he is generally regarded as the outstanding creative artist of modern India. The son of the religious reformer Debendranath Tagore, he early began to write verses, and after incomplete studies in England in the late 1870s, he returned to India. There he published several books of poetry in the 1880s and completed Manasi (1890), a collection that marks the maturing of his genius. In 1891 Tagore went to East Bengal (now in Bangladesh) to manage his family’s estates 10 years. There he often stayed in a houseboat on the Padma River (i.e., the Ganges River), in close contact with village folk, and his sympathy for their poverty and backwardness became the keynote of much of his later writing. During these years he published several poetry collections, which remain extremely popular among all classes of Bengali society. In 1901 Tagore founded an experimental school in rural West Bengal at Shantiniketan (‘Abode of Peace’), where he sought to blend the best in the Indian and Western traditions. He settled permanently at the school, which became Vishva-Bharati University in 1921. Years of sadness arising from the deaths of his wife and two children between 1902 and 1907 are reflected in his later poetry, which was introduced to the West in Gitanjali, Song Offerings (1912). This book, containing Tagore’s English prose translations of religious poems from several of his Bengali verse collections, won him the Nobel Prize in 1913. Tagore was awarded a knighthood in 1915, but he repudiated it in 1919 as a protest against the Amritsar Massacre. He died on 7 Aug1941.

Jose Rizal, Calamba, Laguna, Philippines

Patriot, Rizal was a physician and man of letters whose ardent nationalism inspired the Philippine nationalist movement. He was the son of a successful farmer and his mother was one of the most highly educated women in the Philippines at the time. She was a powerful influence on his intellectual development. In 1882, Rizal travelled to Spain to study medicine. There, he committed himself to advocating reform to Spanish rule in the Philippines. Never an advocate of independence, he sought to loosen the economic and political stranglehold of the Spanish friars on Philippine life. (Agena with his Mars) His first novel, The Social Cancer (1886) had a profound effect, exposing the evils of a system hitherto unknown. Published in Tagalog, it reached a wide audience and established him as a spokesman for reform. He propounded equality before the law for both Filipinos and Spaniards, replacement of Spanish friars with Filipino priests and representation of the Philippines in the Spanish parliament as a province of Spain. Returning to the Philippines in 1892, he worked as a doctor and continued to espouse his views, resulting in exile to a remote part of the country. An armed uprising four years later, resulted in his arrest, despite no connection to the rebels. He was tried for sedition by a military court, found guilty and executed by firing squad on 30 Dec 1896. His execution fuelled the war of independence from Spain.

James Naismith, Almonte, Canada

Educator, Naismith is credited with inventing the game of basketball. He studied theology but was an all-round sportsman. In 1891 he was appointed head of the physical education department at Springfield College where he was asked to devise indoor games for the students during winter. Naismith selected features from a number of sports including soccer, gridiron, hockey and other outdoor sports. He received a Masters degree in 1898. From then until 1937 he headed the physical education departrment at the University of Kansas and coached basketball until 1908. The Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame was incorporated in 1959. Naismith died on 28 Nov 1939.

Constance (Clara) Garnett, Brighton, United Kingdom

Translator, Garnett’s work as a translator made the Russian classics available to the English speaking world in the first half of the 20th century. She was the first to translate Dostoevsky and Chekhov into English as well as Gogol, Turgenev and Tolstoy. She won a scholarship in 1879 to Newnham College, Cambridge. After her marriage and birth of her son in 1892, she began her career as a translator with Goncharov’s ‘Common Story’, which appeared in appeared in 1894. Altogether she translated over 70 works of Russian literature. [Ed: Her life is a clear expression of Mirach, on her nadir with her Mercury. Showing a fundermental skill as a person who could build a bridge with words. In addition, Thuban with her Sun is also reflected in that she gave to the English speaking world the treasures of Russian classics]. She died on 17 Dec 1946.

Edith Wharton, New York, New York

Novelist, American author best known for her stories and novels about the upper-class society into which she was born. Wharton was educated privately at home and in Europe. In 1885 she married Edward Wharton, a Boston banker, and a few years later resumed the literary career she had begun tentatively as a young girl. The best of Wharton’s early short stories were collected in The Greater Inclination (1899). Her novel The Valley of Decision was published in 1902, followed in 1905 by the critical and popular success of her novel The House of Mirth, which established her as a leading writer. In the next two decades–before the quality of her work began to decline under the demands of writing for women’s magazines–she wrote such novels as The Reef (1912), The Custom of the Country (1913), Summer (1917), and The Age of Innocence (1920), which won a Pulitzer Prize. Wharton’s best-known work is the long tale Ethan Frome (1911), which exploits the grimmer possibilities of the New England farm life she observed. After 1907 Wharton lived in France, visiting the United States only at rare intervals, and in 1913 she was divorced from her husband. She died 11 Aug 1937.

Fernand-Isidore Widal, Dellys, Algeria

Physician, Bacteriologist, French physician and bacteriologist who made important contributions to the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of many diseases. In 1896 Widal developed a procedure for diagnosing typhoid fever based on the fact that antibodies in the blood of an infected individual cause the bacteria to bind together into clumps (the Widal reaction). A professor of pathology and internal medicine at the University of Paris (1911-29), he also recognized (1906) the body’s retention of sodium chloride as a feature of nephritis (inflammation of the kidney) and cardiac oedema (accumulation of excessive fluid in tissues as a result of heart disease), recommending salt deprivation in the treatment of both diseases. He demonstrated the increased fragility of red blood cells in cases of haemolytic jaundice and, with the French physician Georges Hayem, described the acquired form of the disease (the Hayem-Widal type, 1907). During World War I, Widal prepared an antityphoid-paratyphoid vaccine that appreciably reduced typhoid contagion among the allied armies. He died 14 Jan 1929.

Ida Wells-Barnett, Holly Springs, Mississippi

Journalist, Crusader, Black American journalist who led an antilynching crusade in the United States in the 1890s. The daughter of slaves, Wells was a teacher in rural Mississippi and Tennessee before turning to journalism in the late 1880s. Using the pen name Iola, she wrote articles for black-owned newspapers on such issues as the education of black children. In 1892 she was a part-owner of the Memphis Free Speech. Later that same year, however, after she denounced in her editorials the lynching of three of her friends, the newspaper’s office was mobbed and destroyed by local whites. Undaunted, Wells began a crusade to investigate the lynching of blacks in the American South. She argued that lynching stemmed not from the defence of white womanhood but from whites’ fear of economic competition from blacks. She subsequently travelled throughout the United States and England, lecturing and founding antilynching societies and black women’s clubs. She died 25 March 1931.

In 1893 Wells organized a black women’s club in Chicago and in 1895 married Ferdinand Lee Barnett, a lawyer and editor of the Chicago Conservator. In 1910 Wells-Barnett was a founder of the Chicago Negro Fellowship League, which aided newly arrived migrants from the South. She was also a women’s rights advocate, founding what may have been the first black woman suffrage group, Chicago’s Alpha Suffrage Club. She published one of the first accounts of lynching episodes in A Red Record (1895). Her autobiography, Crusade for Justice, was published posthumously in 1970. [Ed the bravary that she showed in her life is reflected by Altair in paran with her Sun]

Esther VanDeman, South Salem, Ohio

Archaelogist, American archaeologist and the first woman to specialize in Roman field archaeology. She established lasting criteria for the dating of ancient constructions, which advanced the serious study of Roman architecture. Van Deman earned her BA in 1891, an MA in 1892 and taught Latin at Wellesley Collegend the Bryn Mawr School in Baltimore. She received a Ph.D in1898 and then taught Latin at Mount Holyoke College from 1898-1901) and Latin and archaeology at Goucher College from 1903-06). From 1906 to 1910 she lived in Rome as a Carnegie Institution fellow, and from 1910 to 1925 she was an associate of the Carnegie Institution in Washington, D.C. Between 1925 and 1930 she taught Roman archaeology at the University of Michigan. While in Rome, Van Deman developed methods for dating ancient Roman building materials. In The Atrium Vestae (1909), she publicized her discovery that the size and composition of bricks and mortar used in Roman constructions were indicative of their age. She later extended that method of identification to other kinds of concrete and brick constructions. Her major work, written after she retired and settled in Rome, is The Building of the Roman Aqueducts (1933). She died 3 May 1937 in Rome, Italy.

Pierre baron de Coubertin, Paris, France

Educator, Coubertin is best remembered as the father of the Modern Olympic Games. Trained as a teacher, he travelled extensively studying education methods in Europe and North America. He was in Greece as excavators uncovered the site of the ancient Olympic Games. An advocate of physical education, he believed that international competition among athletes would help lessen international tensions. Coubertin first proposed the idea in 1892 and two years later at an international athletic convention, delegates voted unanimously to revive the Olympic tradition. The first Olympic Games were held in 1896 in Athens and Coubertin was the first president of the International Olympic Committee.

Richard Outcault, Lancaster, Ohio

Cartoonist, Outcault was responsible for the development of the comic strip. In 1885, he was drawing cartoons based on slum life in New York’s east side and his cartoon of an urchin wearing a yellow nightshirt was selected for a test colour run. It attracted so much attention, it was named the ‘Yellow Kid’. Slangy messages appeared on the tail of the nightshirt. Outcault worked for a publication owned by Joseph Pullitzer but rival, William Hearst hired him away. Pullitzer outbid Heart for Outcault’s services and then Hearts outbid him. In retaliation, Pullitzer hired another cartoonist to draw the ‘Yellow Kid’. The ensuing press battle and unscrupulous tactics has come to be known as ‘yellow journalism’. Outcault produced his second important cartoon character, Buster Brown who eventually was used as a merchandising vehicle for products for children including clothing and other items. Outcault died on 25 Sep 1928.

Max Wolf, Heidelberg, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany

Astronomer, German astronomer who applied photography to the search for asteroids and discovered 228 of them. Wolf showed an early interest in astronomy; he was only 21 years old when he discovered a comet, now named for him. In 1890 he was appointed Privatdozent (unsalaried lecturer) at the University of Heidelberg. One year later he adapted a camera to a motor-driven telescope to seek out asteroids. (All previous discoveries had been made one by one by direct observation.) Using a time exposure of the heavens, Wolf demonstrated that the faster-moving asteroids would show up in the photograph as a short line rather than a point of light, which denoted a star. In 1893 Wolf became director of the new Königstuhl Observatory and was appointed to an extraordinary professorship in astrophysics at Heidelberg; nine years later he was elected to the chair of astronomy at Heidelberg. In 1906 he discovered Achilles, the first of the Trojan Planets, two groups of asteroids that move around the Sun in Jupiter’s orbit: one group 60 ahead of Jupiter, the other 60 behind. He died on 3 Oct 1932.

Henry Ford, Wayne, Michigan

Industrialist, Ford revolutionised factory production by introducing the assembly line. He left school at the age of 15 and was apprenticed to a machinist. He also worked intermittently on his father’s farm where he set up a machinist shop. Until 1895, he worked for the Edison Company and left to form his own company and built racing cars. In 1903 he formed the Ford Motor Company and by 1913 had introduced his assembly line methods which produced a car which was affordable for the common people. Ford also introduced the V8 engine in 1932. He died on 7 Apr 1947.

Israel Zangwill, Midhurst, United Kingdom

Writer, Novelist, playwright, and Zionist leader, one of the earliest English interpreters of Jewish immigrant life.

The son of eastern European immigrants, Zangwill grew up in London’s East End and was educated at the Jews’ Free School and at the University of London. His early writings were on popular subjects of his day, but with Children of the Ghetto: A Study of a Peculiar People (1892), he drew on his intimate knowledge of ghetto life to present a gallery of Dickensian portraits of Whitechapel immigrant Jews struggling to survive in a new environment. The novelty of the subject, enhanced by Zangwill’s emphasis on the Jews’ exotic traits and by his simulation in English of Yiddish sentence structure, aroused great interest. Other works of Jewish content include a picaresque novel, The King of Schnorrers (1894), concerning an 18th-century rogue, and Dreamers of the Ghetto (1898), essays on such famous Jews as Benedict de Spinoza, Heinrich Heine, and Ferdinand Lassalle. The image of America as a crucible wherein the European nationalities would be transformed into a new race owes its origin to the title and theme of Zangwill’s play The Melting Pot (1908). Zangwill became a spokesman for Zionism after meeting Theodor Herzl in 1896 but broke with the movement to form the Jewish Territorial Organization for the Settlement of the Jews Within the British Empire, of which he was president (1905-25). (Ed: His success in helping the Jewish people, by giving them a greater profile as well as then becoming a leader, is described by Alcyone in paran with his Juptier) He died on 1 Aug 1926.

Eugen Albert, Glasgow, United Kingdom

Pianist, composer, Albert composed several operas, notably, ‘Tiefland’ 1903, a suite, a symphony, many songs, and much music for the piano.

Alois Alzheimer, Marktbreit, Germany

Psychiatrist, Alzheimer studied medicine in Wurzburg and Berlin universities, and in 1912 – aged 48 – became professor of psychiatry and neurology at Breslau University. He is remembered for his full clinical and pathological description in 1906 of pre-senile dementia. He died in 1915.

Robert Aitken, Jackson, California

Astronomer, Aitken was a professor of mathematics and astronomy at the University of the Pacific (1891-5) then joined Lick Observatory, CA where he became director (1930-5) His discovery of more than 3000 double stars gained him the gold medal of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1932.

August von Wasserman, Bamberg, Germany

Bacteriologist, German bacteriologist whose discovery of a universal blood-serum test for syphilis helped extend the basic tenets of immunology to diagnosis. ‘The Wassermann reaction,’ in combination with other diagnostic procedures, is still employed as a reliable indicator for the disease.

Working at the Robert Koch Institute for Infectious Diseases in Berlin (1890-1913), Wassermann and the German dermatologist Albert Neisser developed (1906) a test for the antibody produced by persons infected with the protozoan Spirochaeta pallida (now known as Treponema pallidum), the causative agent of syphilis. In 1913 Wassermann became director of the department of experimental therapy at the Kaiser-Wilhelm Institute, Berlin-Dahlem, a position he held until his death. He is also noted for having devised diagnostic tests for tuberculosis and collaborated with the German bacteriologist Wilhelm Kolle in writing the Handbuch der pathogenen Mikroorganismen, 6 vol. (1903-09; ‘Handbook of Pathogenic Microorganisms’). He died on 16 March1925.

Anne Sullivan, Springfield, Massachusetts

Teacher, Anne Sullivan is known as Helen Keller’s teacher and she has been recognised for her achievement in educating persons without sight, hearing or speech. Sullivan, nearly blind herself, graduated from the Perkins Institute for the Blind in 1886. [Ed: Pollux with her Moon shows her love of knowledge and willingness to help those who struggle with learning]. The following year she was hired as governess to Helen Keller who, as a result of illness was blind and deaf. Sullivan used several methods to communicate with Helen and within a month had given the child a means with which to communicate with the world. Her success in unlocking the world for a blind deaf-mute had only been done once before. Sullivan became Keller’s companion, accompanying her to Raddcliffe until her graduation in 1904. In 1905 she married John Macy, the writer who had helped Keller write her autobiography. She and Macy were separated in 1913 and Sullivan accompanied Kelle on a series of lecture trips around the world. Anne Sulilvan died on 20 Oct 1936.

Beatrix Potter, Middlesex, England

Writer of Children’s Books, Potter is best remembered for her animal characters namely, Peter Rabbit, Jemima Puddle-duck and Mrs Tiggywinkle, to name a few. She grew up a lonely child and holidays in the countryside inspired her love of animals which she captured in watercolours. Her illustrated stories to a sick child became so popular that she published them privately in 1900 and 1902. A publisher saw their potential and reprinted them in 1903 and 1904. The stories were then translated into French, Spanish, German and Welsh. Potter designed the small books so that any child could hold them. [Ed: Her Venus in paran with Dubhe culminating shows her love of children, protectiveness and her quiet strength and persistance with her work.] She died on 22 Dec 1943. [Ed: This chart has been set up as a predawn birth as this makes her stars more accurately reflect her life]

Jeppe Aakjaer, Arhus, Denmark

Novelist, Poet, A leader of the Jutland movement in Davnis Literature, his works included the novel ‘Verdens Bor’ – Children of Wrath the the poems of ‘Rugens Sange’ – Songs of Rye. He wrote much in the Jutland dialect, into which he translated some of Robert Burn’s poems (Aculeus with Mercury)

H G Wells, Bromley, Kent, United Kingdom

Novelist, English novelist, journalist, sociologist, and historian, best known for such science fiction as The Time Machine and The War of the Worlds and such comic novels as Tono-Bungay and The History of Mr. Polly. Born the son of domestic servants turned small shopkeepers, he grew up under the continual threat of poverty. At 14, after a very inadequate education supplemented by his inexhaustible love of reading, he was apprenticed to a draper in Windsor. His employer soon dismissed him; and he became assistant to a chemist, then to another draper, and finally, in 1883, an usher at Midhurst Grammar School. At 18 he won a scholarship to study biology at the Normal School (later the Royal College) of Science, in South Kensington, London, where T.H. Huxley was one of his teachers. He graduated from London University in 1888, becoming a science teacher and undergoing a period of ill health and financial worries, the latter aggravated by his marriage, in 1891. The marriage was not a success, and in 1894 Wells ran off with Amy Catherine Robbins, a former pupil, who in 1895 became his second wife. With his first novel, The Time Machine (1895), which was immediately successful, he began a series of science-fiction novels: For a time he acquired a reputation as a prophet of the future,(Alcyone in paran with his Sun) and indeed, in The War in the Air (1908), he foresaw certain developments in the military use of aircraft. But his imagination flourished at its best not in the manner of the comparatively mechanical anticipations of Jules Verne but in the astronomical fantasies of The First Men in the Moon and The War of the Worlds, from the latter of which the image of the Martian has passed into popular mythology. [Ed: Menkar in paran with his Moon explains how his work could reach in and touch the hearts and fears of the collective as well as Zuben Elgenubi in paran with his Venus, showing his desire to influence an alternative world into his society]. Wells died 13 Aug 1946.

Herbert Austin, Buckingham, United Kingdom

Car manufacturer, Austin travelled to Australia in 1884 at age 18 and worked there in engineering shops. He returned to England in 1893 and by 1895 with the Wolseley Company, produced his first three-wheeled car. In 1905 he opened his own works and its enormous output included the popular ‘Baby’ Austin. [Saturn in paran with Sadalsuud shows his insight or luck in understanding the need for a cheap and small car]. He was also the Conservative MP for King’s Nortin. He died in 1941.

Emily Balch, Boston, Massachusetts

Sociologist, scientist, An American leader of the women’s movement for peace during and after World War I. She received the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1946 jointly with John Raleigh Mott. She was also noted for her sympathetic and thorough study of Slavic immigrants in the United States. [Ed: Zuben Elgenubi in paran with her Sun shows her social awareness and desire to help a group].

A member of the first graduating class at Bryn Mawr College (Pennsylvania), Balch taught at Wellesley College (Massachusetts) from 1897. She founded a settlement house in Boston and served on the Massachusetts commissions on industrial relations (1908-09) and immigration (1913-14) and the Boston city planning board (1914-17). She researched Our Slavic Fellow Citizens (1910) by living in Slavic-American neighbourhoods in various cities and travelling to eastern Europe for firsthand knowledge of the Slavic homelands.

A member of the Society of Friends (Quakers), Balch was a delegate to the International Congress of Women, The Hague (1915), and she helped found the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom, of which she was secretary-treasurer (1919-22, 1934-35). For opposing the United States’ entry into World War I, she was dismissed from her professorship at Wellesley in 1918. Realizing the intractability of Nazi Germany and Japan, she approved U.S. participation in World War II. Her writings on peace include Approaches to the Great Settlement (1918). She died in 1961.

Laura Inglis Wilder, Pepin, Wisconsin

Novelist, Children’s Writer, American author of children’s fiction based on her own youth in the American Midwest. [Ed: Fomalhaut with her Venus enabled her to romanticise her childhood memories]. Wilder spent 12 years editing the Missouri Ruralist before, at the urging of her daughter, she began to write. Her stories centred on the male unrest and female patience of pioneers in the mid-1800s and celebrated their peculiarly American spirit and independence. These were collected in Little House in the Big Woods (1932), Farmer Boy (1933), Little House on the Prairie (1935), On the Banks of Plum Creek (1937), By the Shores of Silver Lake (1939), The Long Winter (1940), Little Town on the Prairie (1941), and These Happy Golden Years (1943). In the 1970s and ’80s a popular television series, Little House on the Prairie, was based on her stories. She died on 10 Feb 1957.

Dionisio Anzilotti, Pistoia, Italy

Jurist, Lawyer, Anzilotti was Professor A Rome (1911-37), he was a founder of the positive school of international law, which derived law from the practice of nations, advocating a sharp distinction between the legal and the political and moral aspects, rather than from theorizing. Later he became a judge of the Permanent Court of International Justice (1921-30) and its president (1928-30). He died in 1950

Lillian Wald, Cincinnati, Ohio

Nurse, Social Worker, American nurse and social worker who founded the internationally known Henry Street Settlement in New York City (1893). In 1893 Wald and Mary M. Brewster founded a settlement house at 265 Henry Street, on the Lower East Side of Manhattan. This address also became the headquarters of a visiting-nurse service organized by Wald. In 1902 one of her nurses was assigned to the city’s public schools, and the municipal board of health then established the world’s first public-school nursing system. Partly through her efforts, the American Red Cross initiated a rural nursing service in 1912, and the U.S. government established the Children’s Bureau in the same year. Wald also promoted public playgrounds and cultural institutions, especially theatres, in slum areas in New York City. Her books include The House on Henry Street (1915) and Windows on Henry Street (1934). She died 1 Sept 1940.

Frank Lloyd Wright, Richland Center, Wisconsin

Architect, Architect and writer, the most abundantly creative genius of American architecture. [Ed Betelgeuse in paran with his Mercury] His ‘Prairie style’ became the basis of 20th-century residential design in the United States. He died on 9 April 1959, Phoenix, Ariz.

Henry Lawson, Grenfell, Australia

Short Story writer, Poet, Lawson is best known for his work about Australian bush life. His father was a Norwegian sailor and his mother an active feminist. Lawson’s deafness at the age of 9 and family poverty forced him to leave school at 14 to help his father. In 1884 he moved to Sydney where the Bulletin magazine published several of his short stories between 1887-88. During this time he worked for several newspapers but also spent a lot of time wandering around the countryside. His experiences formed the basis for much of his writing, which was vivid and realistic capturing the cynicism and irony or Australian working life. He died on 22 Sep 1922.

Lionel Lukin, Williamsport, Pennsylvania

Inventor, Lukin is credited with developing the modern ‘unsinkable’ lifeboat. He started experimenting with the theory in 1784 and in 1785 patented his method of building small boats that would not sink. He used watertight compartments and light materials to achieve this. He also invented a raft for rescuing people trapped under ice, an adjustable reclining bed for hospital patients and a rain gauge. He died on 16 Feb 1834.

Sarah Bredlove Walker, Delta, Louisiana

Businesswoman, Philanthropist, Businesswoman and philanthropist generally acknowledged to be the first black female millionaire in the United States. Married at the age of 14 , she was a widow by the age of 20 with a daughter, to support. [Antares in paran with her Moon giving her the strength to become an independent woman] They moved to St. Louis, where she worked as a washerwoman until 1905, when she developed a method for straightening curly hair. She organized agents to sell her hair treatment door-to-door and in 1910 transferred her business–by then the Madame C.J. Walker Manufacturing Co.–to Indianapolis, Ind. Her company at its peak employed some 3,000 people, many of them ‘Walker agents’–saleswomen dressed in long black skirts and white blouses who became familiar figures in the black communities of the United States and the Caribbean. She was married in 1906 to Charles J. Walker, a newspaperman. Walker also established Walker Schools of Beauty Culture across the country and initiated hygienic regulations for her staff that anticipated later state cosmetology laws. Her fortune was augmented by shrewd real estate investments. Generous with her money, she included in her extensive philanthropies educational scholarships, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, homes for the aged, and the National Conference on Lynching. [Ed: She is a lovely example of Ankaa in paran with Jupiter] She bequeathed her estate to various charitable and educational institutions and to her daughter, A’Lelia Walker Kennedy, who was later known for supporting an intellectual salon–known as The Dark Tower–that helped to stimulate the cultural Harlem Renaissance of the 1920s. She died 25 May 1919.

Tsar Nicholas II, Saint Petersburg, Russia

Monarch, The last Russian emperor who, together with his wife and children, was massacred by the Bolsheviks after the Russian Revolution in 1917. Nicholas succeeded his father as Tsar on 1 Nov 1894 and was crowned on 26 May 1896. He married Alexandra shortly after his father’s death (26 Nov 1894) and was devoted to her. As a ruler, he left much to be desired, rarely understanding the complexities of foreign policy and often embarrasing his ministers. He was an autocrat whose belief in his divine right to rule helped intensify the ground swell of popular support for a democratic government. His devotion to his wife also saw him acquiese to her and to her long-standing adviser, Rasputin with disastrous results. This led to an alienation of the throne from the government as well as from the people leading to massive discontent. On 15 March 1917, he renounced his throne and he and his family were sent to Siberia where on the night of 16-17 July, they were killed in the cellar of the house in Yekaterinburg.

Karl Landsteiner, Vienna, Austria

Immunologist, Pathologist, Landsteiner was awarded the 1930 Nobel Prize for Medicine in recognition of the work he did in discovering the major blood groups and developing the ABO blood typing system. This system has ensured that blood transfusions are now a routine procedure. As a research assistant between 1898-1908, he discovered that the differences in blood types were the reason why indiscriminate blood transfusions posed such a danger to patients. In 1901 he showed that there were three major blood groups and labelled them A, B and O. He discovered the AB type the following year and in 1927 discovered the M and N types as well as the R (Rhesus) negative. He also contributed to the development of legal medicine by providing evidence in paternity suits. He was appointed professor of pathology in 1909 at the University of Vienna and at the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research in New York City in 1922. His work ‘the Specificity of Serological Reactions’ published in 1936 established the science of immunochemistry. He died on 26 June 1943.

Mary Austin, Carlinville, Illinois

Novelist, Essayist, Austin was a friend and chronicler of the nearby Indian tribes in the state of California, where she lived. Her first book, ‘The Land of Little Rain’ published in 1903 when she was 35, won her immediate fame, and was followed by other works on Indian life and social problems. [Ed: Ras Algethi setting while in paran to her Mercury shows her desire to write about simple, natural ways of life, lifestyle which are closer to nature]. She died in 1934.

Alexandra David-Neel, Paris, France

Explorer, mystic, author, From childhood Alexandra displayed an adventurous soul. At the age of five she ran away to the Vincennes woods, but the simple game of playing hooky soon ended up at the police station. However by the age of fifteen she finally left home and journey to Great Britain. One journey followed on another and travel became her way of life, the spirit of adventure suited her restless soul. As a young woman she wrote an impassioned feminist text, drawing up a declaration of the rights of women and demanding a salary for housewives.

In 1891, Alexandra left for Ceylon. The journey was to last eighteen months and took her as far as the state of Sikkim but at the border she had to cut her journey short through lack of funds. More nomadic than ever on her return, she then embarked on a career as a singer, using the stage name of Mademoiselle Myrial. At the age of twenty-seven, after a few small appearances in minor theatres, she was offered the position as lead female singer at the Hanoi opera. She returned to Indo-China and stayed for two years singing in Carmen,

On returning to England she married, but then left her husband to continue travelling. The original plan was to travel for one year. Her husband found himself in the position of providing the necessary finances and was not to see his wife again for another fourteen years, in 1924. The trip marked the beginning of a new life for Alexandra, and a revival of her youth. At the time she was forty-three. No sooner had she arrived in Colombo than she initiated her own style of travelling, i.e. the erudite journey, a practice requiring a thorough knowledge of languages (she spoke Pali, the sacred language of the Buddhists in the south), begging and exegetic interpretation of scriptures, meetings with wise elders and men of letters and, of course, meditation. She undertook the study and revelation of the arcane teachings of Tibetan Buddhism, and was extraordinarily privileged in Kalimpong to be heard by none other than the 13th Dalai Lama.

The news of this remarkable meeting between the ‘Yellow Pope’ and the European woman soon had her dubbed ‘Lady Lama’. As the disciple of a Tibetan grand master, she stayed in a Himalayan hermitage leading the life of an anchorite. Walking or by mule she travelled from town to monastery, through valleys and deserts, following her own itineraries, while Philippe Néel looked after funds and bank orders, bringing financial ruin on himself in order to subsidise her journeys. While constantly short of money, Alexandra scorned comfort, was ready to survive on a starvation diet, ignored any weakness, was almost devoured by man-eating yogis and discovered the art of ‘tumo’ i.e. tolerating arctic cold while increasing the body temperature. Furious about the ban on her entering the capital city of Tibet and after a number of attempts all ending in expulsion, she finally achieved the impossible: after covering more than three thousand kilometres accompanied by Lama Anphur Yongden, an Indian boy from the state of Sikkim whom she later adopted as her son, disguised as a beggar, her face painted black, pretending to be simple-minded, she entered the forbidden city of Lhasa. This was in 1924. She published an account of this journey in ‘Voyage d’une Parisienne à Lhassa’ (‘My Journey to Lhasa’) which was a triumph. Asia and Tibet provided later inspiration for other books, translations of sacred texts, exegetical studies and autobiographical tales, all models of the erudite art of exploring. In her eighties she finally put away her travelling bags and retired to her house in Digne. At the age of one hundred she still renewed her passport in the hope of one day travelling again. Alexandra David-Neel died in 1969.

Florenz Ziegfeld, Chicago, Illinois

Theatrical Producer, American theatrical producer who brought the revue to spectacular heights under the slogan ‘Glorifying the American Girl.’

During the World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893, Ziegfeld managed Sandow, the strong man. In 1896 he turned to theatrical management. His promotion of a French beauty, Anna Held, with press releases about her milk baths brought her fame and set a pattern of star making through publicity. In 1907 he produced in New York City his first revue, The Follies of 1907, modelled on the Folies-Bergère of Paris but less risqué. The revue’s combination of seminudity, pageantry, and comedy was repeated successfully for 23 more years, until the advent of the Great Depression ended the annual spectacles. Four other editions appeared after his death, the last in 1957.

Among the stars developed by Ziegfeld were Marilyn Miller, Will Rogers, Leon Errol, Bert Williams, Fanny Brice, and Eddie Cantor. In addition to the Follies, Ziegfeld also produced the stage successes Sally (1920), Show Boat (1927), Rio Rita (1927), and Bitter Sweet (1929). Ziegfeld married Anna Held in 1897 and, after their divorce in 1913, the actress Billie Burke.

He died on 22 July 1932 in Hollywood.

Mohandas K. Gandhi, Porbander, India

Leader, Statesman,Gandi was reared in a morally rigorous environment that decreed pacifism and the sanctity of all living things. (Acrux with his Moon) Gandhi began his law studies in 1888 and travelled to South Africa looking for work. In that country he was so shocked at the racial discrimination he became an advocate for his fellow Indians and undertook a series of challenges to the government that led to jail. He entered politics in India in 1919 to protest British sedition laws [Ed: Deneb Adige in paran with his Mars for his adult years, showing the characteristic of the noble or religious warrior]. He emerged as the head of the Indian National Congress and advocated a policy of non-violent no cooperation to achieve Indian independence. In 1930 he lead a march to the sea to protest the tax on salt. In August 1947 he negotiated for an autonomous Indian state. A Hindu fanatic shot him in January 1948. [Ed In many ways Gandhi life is a symbol of both his heliacal rising star of Alkes and his heliacal setting star Alderamin]

Henry Handel Richardson, Melbourne, Australia

Novelist,Pseudonym of Ethel Florence Richardson, she was the author of the trilogy, The Adventures of Richard Mahony. The work depicted the life of an Australian immigrant set against the backdrop of the goldfields. Richardson left Australia in 1888 to study music in Leipzig and spent the rest of her life abroad apart from a short visit in 1912. She wrote her first novel, ‘Maurice Guest’ in 1908, and the second, The Getting of Wisdom in 1910. After this, she started on the trilogy that then occupied her for the next 20 years. It was published in 1930. She died on 20 March 1946. 3,403,Alfred Adler,Vienna, Austria,481200,162200,1870,2,7,12,0,0,1,-1.09111106395721,LMT,X,,1,Pioneer psychiatrist,He trained in Vienna firstly in the field of ophthalmologist but later turned to mental disease and became a prominent member of the psychoanalytical group which formed around Sigmund Freud in 1900. His main contributions include the concept of the inferiority complex and his special treatment of neurosis as the exploitations of shock.[Ed: Alphard and Zuben Elgenubi in paran with his Jupiter both show the desire to explore the human mind, and help heal it]. He moved to the USA in 1932 to teach.

Emma Willard, Berlin, Connecticut

Educator, U.S. educator whose work in women’s education spurred the establishment of high schools for girls and of women’s colleges and coeducational universities. In 1807 Willard became principal of a girls’ academy and in 1814 she opened a boarding school of her own. Her ‘Plan for Improving Female Education’ (1819), first addressed to the New York state legislature, was an appeal for state aid in founding schools for girls and for educational equality for women. It was rejected by the legislature but found favour with Gov. De Witt Clinton, who invited her to move her school to Waterford, N.Y. In 1821 the school was moved to Troy, which had offered a building and grounds, and was named the Troy Female Seminary (now called the Emma Willard School). In 1854, with the educator Henry Barnard, she represented the United States at the World’s Educational Convention in London. She was the author of several widely used textbooks and a volume of poems. [Ed: The presence of three stars, Bellatrix, El Nath and Diadem, in paran with her Moon and all active in the prime of her life describes firstly, her success secondly, her determination and focus and thirdly, her desire and devotion to the rights of women to gain an education.] She died on 15 April 1870.

Maria Montessori, Chiaravalle, Italy

Educator, Montessori originated the educational system which bears her name and is based on a child’s creativity, natural willingness to learn as well as the right to be treated as an individual. She graduated with a degree in Medicine in 1894, the first woman in Italy to do so. Her interest in education arose from her work with mentally retarded children. She opened her first school in 1907, putting to use her methods with children of normal intelligence. [Vindemaitrix in paran with Saturn showing her desire to explore in implement systems]. She was very successful and for the next 40 years established schools in Europe, India and the USA. She died on 6 May 1952. [Ed Ankaa in paran with her Mars talks of her motivation to help children reach their full potential]

Helena Rubinstein, Krakow, Poland

Cosmetician, Businesswoman, The founder of the Helen Rubinstein cosmetic empire, she was born one of 8 daughters. She left Poland in 1902 and went to Melbourne, Australia where she opened a beauty salon offering a special face cream. Her success saw her take her business to Europe where she studied. She opened her London salon in 1908 and one in Paris in 1912. When World War I broke out, she immigrated to the USA. In 1917 she began wholesale distribution of her beauty products and developed the first line of medicated skin care products. She became a prominent figure in international circles with an estimated personal fortune of over $100 million. In 1953 she established the Helen Rubinstein Foundation to coordinate various philanthropic activities including gifts to museums, schools and institutions for the poor, for women and children. She died on 1 April 1965.

Sergey Diaghilev, Novgorod, Russia

Arts Promoter, Diaghilev is best known for fusing Russian music, art and dance. His mother died in childbirth and he styled himself a hedonist, seeking pleasure and beauty in his personal and professional life. He acquired a law degree in 1896 but he was convinced that his career was as a patron of the arts. This proved difficult as he lacked any sort of private income and his homosexuality was a barrier in the confines of Russian orthodox society. The turning point of his life was in 1906 when he left Russia fro Paris. There he organised exhibitions and he launched ventures to fulfil his artistic ideals. His Ballets Russes with dancers Anna Pavlova, Vasla Nijinsky and Michael Fokine helped create a new tradition in ballet and dance. The outstanding productions included ‘The Rite of Spring’, ‘The Firebird’ and ‘Petrushka’. He also helped introduce new composers and artists to expectant audiences. Although he became incredibly influential, Diaghilev was a lonely and unhappy man an idealist who never realised the perfection he sought. He died on 19 Aug 1929.

William Heath Robinson, London, United Kingdom

Cartoonist, Heath Robinson was also an illustrator and designer of theatrical machinery but he is best remembered for his cartoons featuring fantastic items of machinery performing household chores. He went to art school on 1887 and later illustrated editions of Don Quixote, The Arabian Nights and a volume of poetry by Edgar Allan Poe. His humorous illustrations, for which he is best known appeared in various newspapers and were popular because of the fun they made of machinery. An impractical or over elaborate item of machinery came to be known as a ‘Heath Robinson contraption’. He died on 13 Sep 1944.

Roald Amundsen, Bogen, Troms, Norway

Explorer, From 1903 to 1906 Amundsen sailed the Northwest Passage from E-W and located the Magnetic North Pole. In 1910 he set sail in the ‘Fram’ in an attempt to reach the North Pole, but hearing that Peary had apparently beaten him to it, he switched to the Antarctic and reached the South Pole in December 1911, one month ahead of Captain Scott.[Ed: Amundsen had Procyon in paran with his Moon, while being ALH and the mood swings of this star are shown in his chase from one adventure to another, fueled by his Sun with Altair]. In 1926 he flew the airship ‘Norge’ across the North Pole. In 1928 he disappeared when searching by plane for fellow explorers that had become lost while on a flight to the North Pole.

Richard Willstatter, Karlsruhe, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany

Chemist, German chemist whose study of the structure of chlorophyll and other plant pigments won him the 1915 Nobel Prize for Chemistry.

Willstätter obtained his doctorate from the University of Munich (1894) for work on the structure of cocaine. In 1905 he was given a professorship at Zürich and began working on chlorophyll. He elucidated its structure and showed that the blood pigment heme bears a structural resemblance to the porphyrin compound found in chlorophyll. He was professor of chemistry in the University of Berlin and director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute at Berlin (1912-16), where his investigations revealed the structure of many of the pigments of flowers and fruits. |Ed: His work in understand the nature of colour is a reflection of his Venus in paran with Ras Alegthi, the star that seeks to find the natural order of things]. When his work was interrupted by the war, at the behest of Fritz Haber he turned his attention to developing a gas mask. He died on 3 Aug 1942.

Sri Aurobindo, Calcutta, India

Philosopher, Poet, Mystic, Born in Calcutta, India he studied at Cambridge, and became a professor in Baroda and Calcutta. When he was 38 he renounced nationalism and politics for yoga and Hindu philosophy, (Achernar in paran with Venus) he founded an ashram at Pondicherry in 1910. He died in 1950.

Aubrey Beardsley, Brighton, United Kingdom

Illustrator, A leading illustrator, Beardsley achieved notoriety as a leading figure in the Aestheticism movement headed by Oscar Wilde. He had a strong interest in art and although his formal training amounted to a few months attending night classes, he was commissioned in 1893 to illustrate an edition of Malory’s ‘Morte Darthur’. A year later he was appointed illustrator for the magazine, ‘The Yellow Book’. He gained notoriety with his illustrations of Oscar Wilde’s play, ‘Salome’ which were sensual and erotic. His health was always delicate and from the age of six he suffered from tuberculosis. A recurrence at the age of 17 and subsequent bouts left him an invalid by 1896. In 1897 he converted to Roman Catholicism and went to live in France where he died on 16 Mar 1898.

Emily Post, Baltimore, Maryland

Authority on Social Behaviour, Post is remembered for her major work on etiquette ‘Etiquette: the blue book of social usage’ which was first published in 1922. She was born to wealth and position and married in 1893. Her husband lost his fortune in 1901 and a subsequent divorce left her in strained circumstances. [Ed: Capulus in paran with her Sun showing her harsh treatment by male figures]. She started a writing career and compiled the book on etiquette at the suggestion of her publisher. So successful was it that it underwent 10 editions and 90 printings by the time of her death in 1960. She wrote a syndicated column and also conducted a radio program. [Ed: Her striving for etiquette and her life being linked to this subject, is symbolised by Fomalhaut on her nadir in paran to her Moon]. She died on 25 Sep 1960.

Sarah Baker, Poughkeepsie, New York

Physician, Child Welfare, After earning an M.D. from the Women’s Medical College of the New York Infirmary for Women and Children in 1898, Baker began working for the New York City Health Department, becoming assistant commissioner in 1907. Her concern with the city’s high infant mortality rate led to the establishment the next year of the Division of Child Hygiene–the first public agency solely devoted to child health and a model for similar agencies around the world. She developed pioneering programs that drew public attention to the value of preventive medicine. Her achievements include the introduction of public school health measures, midwife training schools, and baby health stations that dispensed both milk and advice. In 1917 Baker earned from New York University the first doctorate ever awarded to a woman in the field of public health. She died in 1945.

Leopold Amery, Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, India

Statesman, Amery studied at Oxford and became a Conservative MP a position that he held for 34 years. He served as First Lord of the Admiralty from 1919 – 1929 then returned to office in Churchill’s wartime administration as secretary fo state for India and Burma. He became famous for his exhortation to Neville Chamberlian in May 1940, adapting Cromwells’s words ‘In the name of God go!’.

William Bagley, Detroit, Michigan

Educator, Author, Bagley’s professional commitment was to the improvement of public education, largely through improved teacher training. He became a leading spokesman of the ‘Essentialists’–a group of professional educators who advocated European-style emphasis on a rigorous curriculum of traditional subjects, in opposition to the approach of many progressive-education circles. He was an outspoken proponent of equality in educational opportunity and vigorously opposed restricting such opportunity on the basis of intelligence-test scores. [Ed: Phact with his Sun shows his head-strong plough ahead attitude to life]. He was an early experimenter in the use of radio for instruction. He was a prolific writer founding many professional journals and publishing many volumes on education. [Ed: Denebola being of curtailed passage as well as in paran with his Sun for his adult years shows his determination and willingness to clash with the established thinking of the day]. He died in 1946.

Guglielmo Marconi, Bologna, Italy

Inventor, Marconi is best known as the inventor of radio telegraphy. He studied physics and in 1849 began experimenting with a crude version of his invention. Receiving little encouragement from the Italian government, Marconi went to London in 1896 and there filed his first patent in June of that year. He continued experimenting with greater distances and set up a land station in 1897 in Italy, establishing a communication link with Italian warships and the land command. Also in 1899, a land station was set up in England. Again, a lack of interest meant the potential was not exploited. A cousin, a practicing engineer, financed Marconi and they set up the Wireless Telegraph and Signal Co in 1899. This was changed to Marconi’s Wireless Telegraph Co in 1900. In 1900, Marconi filed his famous patent No 7777 for Improvements in Wireless Telegraphy. In 1901 he succeeded in transmitting signals across the Atlantic Ocean. The following year he made the discovery that radio wave transmission varies from day to night. More innovantions followed and he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1909. In September 1918 he sent the first radio message from England to Australia. In 1924, the company received the contract to establish shortwave communication between England and other Commonwealth countries. Marconi died on 20 Jul 1937.

Clemens Freiher von Pirquet, Vienna, Austria

Physician, Von Pirquet originated the skin test for tuberculosis which today bears his name. He graduated from the university in 1900. In 1906 while working with patients he noticed that some developed reactions to vaccinations and used the word allergy to describe these reactions. Through his observations he also developed the theory of the incubation time of infectious diseases and the formation of antibodies. Von Pirquet published his findings in 1909 and showed the spread of tuberculosis among children. He died on 28 Feb 1929.

John Andersson, Knivsta, Uppsala Lan, Sweden

Archaeologist, Andersson trained as a geologist and went to China in 1914 as a technical adviser to the government, but became fascinated by fossil remains. He was the first to identify prehistoric pottery in China. He also initiated excavations in the limestone caves at Chou-K’-ou-tien near Peking (1921-6) finding important fossils of Homo erectus (Peking Man). [Ed: His movement into fossils and his success in this area is reflected by Bellatrix and Denebola in paran with his Jupiter.]

Aleister Crowley, Leamington Spa, England

Metaphysician, Aleister Crowley was born into a wealthy and religious family at the height of the Victorian era. Crowley despised and rebelled against his family at every turn, even renaming himself ‘Aleister’ to avoid sharing the same first name as his father, who passed away when Crowley was 11. Like many naughty young boys, Aleister entertained himself through several activities, notably creating a ‘homemade firework’ with which he nearly killed himself, as well as torturing a cat in several horrible ways to test the ‘nine lives’ theory. He dispensed of his virginity at age 14 with the help of a maid. At 17, he contracted gonorrhea with the help of a street walker. Crowley went on to attend Cambridge University, where he apparently studied alpine climbing, living in the manner of the privileged aristocracy and having a great deal of sex with both men and women. He began searching for more lasting pursuits and in 1898, at age 23, Crowley began his path of magical enlightenment by joining The Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn.

Adopting the magical name Frater ‘Perdurabo’, Latin for ‘I Will Endure’, Crowley advanced quickly through the ranks of the Golden Dawn, initially studying under Alan Bennett, Bennett left England in 1899 for health reasons, moving to Ceylon, what it now Sri Lanka, where he joined a buddhist monastery. Unfortunately, Crowley, left to his own devices, managed to severely fragment the order through sheer force of personality. In 1900, he completed the studies necessary in order to obtain the rank of Adeptus Minor, however the London controllers of the Order, disapproving of Crowley’s homosexual dabblings, refused to advance him Crowley was expelled from the Golden Dawn, only 2 years after joining, chiefly through the efforts of William Butler Yeats, who reportedly did not approve of Crowley’s magical methods.

Crowley’s wife began to receive a very powerful psychic message from the Ancient Egyptian god Horus. Skeptical of his wife’s sudden clairvoyancy, Crowley demanded answers to a series of questions from her, of which she had no possible prior knowledge. Upon answering all things correctly, he took her to a museum, and after passing several images of Horus (which the still skeptical Crowley reports, he ‘noted with silent glee’), she pointed across the room to a stele which could not be clearly seen from where they stood. When they examined the stele (now referred to as the Stele of Revealing, it was painted with the image of Horus, and to Crowley’s further conviction, it was labelled as item number 666 in the museum catalog. Crowley had himself adopted 666 as his personal moniker in rebellion to his religious upbringing many years before. After invoking Horus, Crowley made his fateful breakthrough. For three days Crowley took dictation from the entity identifying itself as Aiwass, the resulting text, Liber AL vel Legis, became what is now known as The Book of the Law.

Crowley seems to have lost interest in things magical for several years. In 1905, he was part of an ill-fated expedition to climb a Himalayan mountain peak, in which several members of the party died. He spent several years travelling through China, Canada and the United States, with and without his wife and child. It was not until his return from the United States that he found out that his daughter Lola Zaza had died from typhus in Rangoon, India.

In 1909, Crowley divorced his wife, on the grounds of her alcoholism. The divorce enabled Crowley to indulge in his passions for magick, drugs, and women unchecked by the constraints of married life. After WWI Crowley’s addiction to both heroin and cocaine raged out of control. occult However it was after his expulsion from Italy, Crowley’s life took a turn for the worse. His reputation as ‘The Wickedest Man In The World’ was now more than ever playing against him. Unable to find a reliable publisher for his writing, or for that matter, a reliable place of residence, he spent the remaining years as a wanderer, still addicted to heroin, desperately in need of both disciples and money. Aleister Crowley died December 1st, 1947 at age 72. His last words are often reported to be ‘I am perplexed’, though since he died alone, this is patently false.

Isadora Duncan, San Francisco, California

Dancer, Duncan is best known for her interpretative dancing and as an advocate of natural rhythm. She started dancing as a child but rejected the formality and rigidity of classical ballet. She based her dancing on natural rhythms and movements but found little success. She went to Europe when she was 21 and there began to appear in private receptions, dressed scantily and dancing in bare feet. She became an overnight sensation both in England and Europe. She had two children by different fathers and in 1913, the car in which they and their nurse were travelling plunged into the Seine and all were drowned. In 1920 she was invited to the Soviet Union where she opened a school. She married a Russian, Sergei Yesenin in 1922 in order to take him with her on a tour of the USA. Fear of the ‘red menace’ greeted her and she was abused and insulted. Duncan left the USA and her marriage was beset with difficulties. Yesenin left her and returned to Russia where he committed suicide in 1925. She spent the latter part of her life in Nice and died in a tragic accident when her scarf became entangled in the wheel of the car in which she was a passenger. She died on 14 Sep 1927.

Pancho Villa, San Juan del Río, Mexico

Revolutionary, Mexican revolutionary and guerrilla leader who fought against the regimes of both Porfirio Diaz and Victoriano Huerta and after 1914 engaged in civil war and banditry.

He was the son of a field labourer and orphaned at an early age. In revenge for an assault on his sister, he killed one of the owners of the estate on which he worked and was afterward forced to flee to the mountains, where he spent his adolescence as a fugitive. In 1909 he joined an uprising against the dictator of Mexico, Porfirio Diaz. During the rebellion, Villa, displayed his talents as soldier and organizer. In 1912, during the rebellion of Pascual Orozco, Villa aroused the suspicion of Gen. Victoriano Huerta, who condemned him to death, but a stay of execution saw Villa sent to prison instead. He escaped and fled to the United States. In 1913, Villa returned to Mexico and formed a military band known as the famous Division del Norte (Division of the North). Combining his force with that of Venustiano Carranza, Villa revolted against the dictatorship of Huerta. In December 1913 Villa became governor of the state of Chihuahua. He and Carranza won a decisive victory over Huerta in June 1914 and together entered Mexico City as the victorious leaders of a revolution. Rivalry resulted in Villa being forced to flee Mexico City in December 1914. In order to demonstrate that Carranza did not control northern Mexico, Villa executed 16 U.S. citizens at Santa Isabel in early 1916 and soon thereafter attacked Columbus, New Mexico. US President Woodrow Wilson then sent an expedition to that area, but, because of Villa’s popularity and knowledge of the terrain, it proved impossible to capture him. After the overthrow of Carranza’s government in 1920, Villa was granted a pardon and a ranch near Parral, Chihuahua, in return for agreeing to retire from politics. Three years later on 20 June 1923, he was assassinated on his ranch.

George Whipple, Ashland, New Hampshire

Physician, Pathologist, U.S. pathologist whose discovery that raw liver fed to chronically bled dogs will reverse the effects of anemia led directly to successful liver treatment of pernicious anemia by the U.S. physicians George R. Minot and William P. Murphy. This major advance in the treatment of non-infectious diseases brought the three men the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1934. In 1920 he demonstrated that liver as a dietary factor greatly enhances haemoglobin regeneration in dogs. He also carried out experiments in artificial anemia (1923-25), which established iron as the most potent inorganic factor involved in the formation of red blood cells. Whipple worked at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, and then the University of California, San Francisco, before moving to the University of Rochester, where he spent most of his career (1921-55) and was first dean of the School of Medicine and Dentistry. He died 1 Feb 1976.

William Aberhart, Huron Park, Canada

Politician, Nicked named ‘Bible Bill’ he was a member of the Alberta legislature and formed his own Social Credit Party, and became provincial premier (1935 – 43) He had founded the Calgary Prophetic Bible Institute in 1918, and his evangelical style of public-speaking gave him his byname. [Ed: Murzims, the Announcer, in paran with his Mars indicates his passionate manner of speaking].

Raden Adjeng (Lady) Kartini, Madiun, Indonesia

Nobelwoman, Feminist, Lady Kartini was an inspiration for Indonesian independence and Indonesian feminism. The daughter of a Javanese aristocrat working for Dutch colonial offices, she had the unusual opportunity of attending a Dutch school that exposed her to Western ideas. In adolescence, she followed Javanese custom and retreated into seclusion however she maintained a vigorous correspondence with Dutch friends. She expressed concern at the plight of Indonesians and the limited opportunities available especially to women. She resolved to make her life a model of emancipation. She married in 1903 and planned to open a school for Javanese girls. However, Kartini died as a result of childbirth complications on 17 Sep 1904. Her letters were published under the title ‘Through Darkness into Light’ in 1911 and generated great support in the Nethrelands for the Kartini Foundation. In 1916 it opened the first girls school in Java. Her ideas became a symbol of nationalism.






Bob Zuppke, Berlin, Berlin, Germany

Football Coach, American college football coach, credited with introducing (in the early 1920s) the offensive huddle, enabling the team with the ball to plan each play immediately before executing it. Emigrating to the United States with his family in 1881, Zuppke was reared in Milwaukee, Wis. After graduation from the University of Wisconsin, he coached in high school until 1913, when he became head football coach at the University of Illinois, Urbana. In 29 seasons his Illinois teams won 131 games, lost 81, and tied 12. Perhaps their greatest victories were upsets of supposedly invincible teams from the universities of Minnesota (1916) and Michigan (1939). Zuppke’s 1927 team was named national champion, and his 1923 team was awarded the same honour, retrospectively, by the Helms Athletic Foundation. He died on 22 Dec 1957 in Champaign, Ill., U.S.

Jeronimo de Zurita, Zaragoza, Spain

Historian, Spanish government official who is regarded as the first modern Spanish historian.

A member of a noble Aragonese family, he was educated at the University of Alcalá. Under the Holy Roman emperor Charles V (King Charles I of Spain) and King Philip II of Spain, Zurita held a succession of offices, including the secretaryship of the Inquisition in Madrid. In 1548 he was given the newly created office of historiographer of the kingdom of Aragon, at that time a constituent kingdom of the Spanish monarchy. Subsequently, Philip II commissioned him to collect all state papers in Aragon and in the Italian dependencies of Spain and to deposit them in the castle of Simancas, where the Castilian state papers already were being concentrated. Zurita thus helped to establish the Spanish national archive of Simancas in 1567.

Zurita’s research in Spain and Italy resulted in his major work, the Anales de la corona de Aragon (1562-80). Covering the period from the Moorish invasions (8th century) until the death of King Ferdinand II (1516), this was the first national history of Aragon, and it remains a useful source for Spanish history. [Ed: Dubhe in paran with his Jupiter indicates he is a collector of history]. He died on 31 Oct 1580.

Dwight Davis, Saint Louis, Missouri

Tennis Player, Davis is best known as the donor of the Davis Cup which is formally known as the International Lawn Tennis Challenge Trophy. He was a three-time winner of the US Doubles championship. In 1900 he offered a silver bowl as a prize for the international competition he envisaged. He was a member of the US teams who won the first two competitions. He also served as captain. Davis served as a public official both in the US and overseas. He died on 28 Nov 1945.

Mack Sennett, Richmond, Quebec, Canada

Film Producer, Director, Sennett created the Keystone Cops and developed slapstick comedy for film. [Ed: Castor in paran with his Moon showing humor]. He was the first comic film director to develop a distinctive style. He was a circus and vaudeville performer until he joined a film studio in 1909. He became a scriptwriter and director and three years later formed his own company, Keystone productions. His company produced the first American full-length feature film, ‘Tillie’s Punctured Romance’. His fame rests however on the many short comedies he produced. A stable of stars also flowered under his tutelage. The coming of sound and animated cartoons coupled with the Wall Street crash wiped out Sennett’s fortune. He retired in 1935 and in 1937 was awarded a special award by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts & Sciences ‘for his contribution to the comedy technique fo the screen.’ Sennett died on 5 Nov 1960.

Sir Leonard Woolley, London, United Kingdom

Archaeologist, British archaeologist whose excavation of the ancient Sumerian city of Ur (in modern Iraq) greatly advanced knowledge of ancient Mesopotamian civilization. His discovery of geological evidence of a great flood suggested a possible correlation with the deluge described in Genesis. His excavation of Ur (1922-34), conducted for the British Museum, London, and the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, enabled scholars to trace the history of the city from its final days during the 4th century BC back to its prehistoric beginnings (c. 4000 BC). Woolley’s findings revealed much about everyday life, art, architecture, literature, government, and religion in what has come to be called ‘the cradle of civilization.’ One of his most dramatic discoveries, royal tombs dating from about 2700 BC, disclosed the practice of the sacrificial burial of a deceased king’s personal retinue. He was knighted in 1935. He died on 20 Feb 1960.

Radclyffe Hall, Bournemouth, United Kingdom

Novelist, Radclyffe Hall is best known for the novel ‘The Well of Loneliness’ whose publication caused a scandal. Its subject matter was lesbianism and it was banned for a period in Britain. She was educated in England and Germany and by 1924 she had published a volume of poetry and two novels. She won several awards in 1926 and 1927 but it was the publication of the ‘The Well of Loneliness’ in 1928, that made her famous. The famous court case saw the book banned in Britain but a US court disagreed. Althouh vindicated, Hall did not write any other controversial material. She lived with her long-time lover, Una Troubridge and died on 7 Oct 1943.

Marie Stopes, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Birth Control Advocate, Advocate of birth control who, in 1921, founded the United Kingdom’s first instructional clinic for contraception. Although her clinical work, writings, and speeches evoked violent opposition, especially from Roman Catholics, she greatly influenced the Church of England’s gradual relaxation (from 1930) of its stand against birth control. (Ed: Her fight for Birth control for the rights of women is reflected in her chart as Algol in paran to her Venus). After obtaining a doctorate in botany in 1904, Stopes taught at the University of Manchester. The failure of her first marriage, which was annulled in 1916, caused her to turn to the problems of marriage. She initially saw birth control as an aid to marriage fulfilment and as a means to save women from the physical strain of excessive childbearing. In this respect she differed from several other early leaders of the birth-control movement, who were more concerned with eliminating overpopulation and poverty. She remarried in 1918. The original birth-control clinic was founded three years later, in the Holloway district of London. In the meantime she wrote Married Love and Wise Parenthood (both 1918), which were widely translated. Her Contraception: Its Theory, History and Practice (1923, new ed. 1931) was, when it first appeared, the most comprehensive treatment of the subject. After World War II she promoted birth control in East Asian countries. She died on 2. Oc 1958.

John Flynn, Moliagul, Australia

Missionary, Flynn is best remembered as the founder of the Royal Flying Doctor Service of Australia. Flynn was ordained a minister in 1912 and he presented a report to the Presbyterian Church on the hardships of life in central and northern Australia. A direct result of this was the establishment of the Australian Inland Mission. Flynn served as its director until his death. He was concerned about the remoteness of many settlements and the lack of accessible medical care. He developed a network of communications and established a service that provided medical care to remote areas using an airplane. The service began operations in 1928. Flynn died on 5 May 1951.

Sir Ralph Freeman, London, United Kingdom

Engineer, Freeman’s most celebrated edifice is the Sydney Harbour bridge which is one of the longest steel-arch bridges in the world. At the age of 21, he joined a London firm of engineers and his projects included the Victoria Falls bridge over the Zambezi River and other bridges in South Africa and New Zealand. He died on 11 Mar 1950.

Anna Pavlova, Saint Petersburg, Russia

Ballerina, Pavlova was the most famous dancer of her time. She trained at the Imperial School of Ballet from 1891 and joined the Imperial Ballet in 1899. Pavlova became prima ballerina in 1906. She travelled to Paris in 1909 with the Ballets Russes but she never felt part of the company. After 1913, she formed her own company and danced independently. The choreographer Michael Fokine created the famous solo, ‘The Dying Swan’ especially for her in 1905. Her private life was kept from the public eye. She married but had no children. Instead her maternal feelings supported the members of her company and an orphanage for refugee Russian orphans that she founded in Paris in 1920. [Ed: Her benefic personality is expressed in the paran of Diadem with Jupiter]. She died on 23 Jan 1931.

Alexander Fleming, Loudon, Scotland

Bacteriologist, Fleming is credited with the discovery of penicillin. He gained a medical degree in 1906 and dedicated himself to researching anti-bacterial substances which were not toxic to humans. He served in World War I and in 1928, he discovered a bacteria-free ring around a mold and called the mold, penicillin. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology in 1945 and shared this with other penicillian and anti-biotic pioneers. He was made a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1943 and received a knighthood in 1944. Fleming died on 1 Mar 1955.

Pablo Picasso, Malaga, Spain

Artist, [Ed: Picasso has many interesting stars in his chart, but the one that describes his life journey is Deneb adige in paran with his Sun]

Alan Alexander Milne ,Sussex, England

Humourist, Children’s Writer, Milne is best known as the author of the popular children’s books featuring Christopher Robin and his toy bear, Winnie the Pooh. In 1906, Milne joined the staff of Punch magazine where he wrote humorous verse and essays. He also wrote several light comedies but it was the verses written for his son, Christopher Robin that brought him fame. They were first published in 1924 as a collection ‘When we were very young’ and a later collection ‘Now we are six’ in 1927. [Ed: Sualocin with his Mercury giving him a youthfullness, playfulness in his work]. He also published a collection of stories about the adventures of assorted characters such as Piglet, Eeyore and Kanga. These appeared in 1926 and 1928. He also adapted another classic, ‘The Wind in the Willows’ for the stage under the title ‘Toad of Toad Hall’. Milne died on 31 Jan 1956. [Ed A.A.Milne has the collectively powerful star Menkar in paran with both his Jupiter as well as his Saturn indicating his ability to have huge popular success with his idea and work].

Ion Antonescu, Pitesti, Romania

Soldier, Dictator, Antonescue was a Romanian general and dictator for the Nazis in WWII,. He served as military attache in Rome and London and became chief-of-staff and minister of defence in 1937. In September 1940, aged 68, he assumed dictatorial powers and forced the abdication of Carol II. He headed a Fascist government allied to Nazi Germany until 1944, when he was overthrown and executed for war crimes. [Ed: The shadow side of Deneb Algedi in paran to his Mars is described by his dictatorial and militant nature and the worst idealistic side of Fomalhaut is shown via his fascism].

Dame Sybil Thorndike, Gainsborough, United Kingdom

Actress, Versatile actress known for her variety of roles over many years, Thorndike was the daughter of a canon at Rochester Cathedral. She started performing in 1908 and joined the Old Vic Company in 1914. Here she helped establish the company as the home of Shakespeare as well as her own career. [Ed: Alphecca in paran with her Saturn describes her desire to use her position and talent to create a legacy in her profession] In 1924, she created the title role in George Bernard Shaw’s ‘St Joan’. She died on 9 Jun 1976.

Amelita Galli-Curci,Milanere, Italy

Operatic Singer, Galli-Curci was known for her coloratura voice and her beauty. She studied piano and musical composition but was self-taught in voice. She appeared in Rome in 1909 in a production of Bizet’s ‘Don Procopio’. She toured internationally and in 1916 appeared in the USA for the first time. She sang with the Metropolitan Opera Company from 1921 to 1930. There followed other tours and she starred in 28 roles. She died on 26 Nov 1963.

Cecil Rhodes, Hertfordshire, United Kingdom

Statesman, Rhodes was a statesman whose personal and professional empire encompassed British South Africa. As a sickly youngster, he was educated at home and ill health also prevented him from taking up a professional career. Instead of going to university, he was sent to South Africa in 1870 to join his brother. He ended up in the Kimberley region at the height of the diamond boom. There he formed a partnership with C D Rudd in early 1880’s named De Beers Consolidated Mines after the many De Beers mining claims he had acquired. By 1891, De Beers owned 90 per cent of the world’s diamond production. Rhodes involvement in South African politics saw him serve as prime minister between 1890-96. Rhodes reputation was devastated when on 29 Dec 1895, contrary to his orders, Jameson led an attack on the Boers and was soundly defeated. [Ed: This is a possible expression of Fomalhaut in paran with his Sun, the charismatic person who falls from grace due to hubris.] This incident led to growing distrust between the Boers and the British which culminated in the outbreak of the Boer war a few years later. He died on 26 march 1902 and his legacy was the Rhodes scholarship for promising young men from the British colonies, the USA and Germany to study at Oxford.

Margaret Sanger, Corning, New York

Reformer, Founder of the birth control movement in the USA. [Ed: Rigel with her Venus gave her strength to fight for what she believed was in incorrect social attitude]. She was the sixth of 11 children. In her work as a nurse in New York’s Lower East Side, she observed the connection between poverty, uncontrolled fertility, the high rates of infant and maternal mortality. As a feminist, she believed in the woman’s right to determine and control the size of her family and she devoted herself to removing the legal barriers that prevented the widespread publicising of information on contraception. In 1914, she established a publication dedicated to the issue and was indicted for breaking the law although the prosecution failed. In 1916, she opened the first birth control clinic and was charged with maintaining a ‘public nuisance’. As a result, she served 30 days in the workhouse. She founded the American Birth Control League in 1921 and helped organise the first World Population Conference in 1927. She was elected as the first president of the International Planned Parenthood Federation and worked tirelessly for birth control in India, Japan and other far eastern countries. She died on 6 Sep 1966.

Sarah Allgood, Dublin, Dublin, Ireland

Actor, At the Abby Theatre she created the parts of Juno Boyle and Bessie Burgess in Sean O’Casey’s plays. In 1940 she moved to Hollywood and appeared in over 30 films.

Ernest Anermet, Vevey, Switzerland

Anserment gave up teaching mathematics in 1910 – age 27 – to devote his time to music. He was conductor of the Montreux Kursaal in 1912 and of the Russian Ballet (1915- 23). In 1918 he founded the Orchestre de la Suisse Romande, whose conductor he remained till 1967. (Ed: His switch from the teacher to the musician is reflected in his stars by Alcyone in paran with his Venus). He died in 1969.

Robert Flaherty, Iron Mountain, Michigan

Film Maker, Known as the father of the documentary film, Flaherty grew up exploring and photographing northern Canada. In 1922, his first film, ‘Nanook of the North’ was released to wide acclaim. It was based on his own experiences living with the Eskimos. His next film ‘Moana’, about a South Seas community untouched by western civillisation, was the first film referred to as a documentary. Flaherty died on 23 Jul 1951.

Florence Allen, Salt Lake City, Utah

Judge, Feminist, Allen graduated from New York University Law School in 1913 at the age of 29. She worked assiduously for women’s rights and became the first woman to sit on a general federal bench and on a court of last resort. She retired in 1959 and in 1965 published the autobiographical ‘To Do Justly’. (Ed: Her life work is really shown by Aldebaran setting as it formed a paran to her Saturn). She died in 1966.

Hugo Gernsback, Luxembourg, Luxembourg

Inventor, Publisher, Gernsback is considered the founder of modern science fiction and his contribution is recognised in the annual Hugo award for the best science fiction novel. [Ed: His Mercury in paran with Phact on his nadir indicates his original thinking]. He travelled to the USA in 1904 to market an improved battery he had invented. He established a radio supply house and founded a magazine for radio enthusiasts. He started publishing ‘Amazing Stories’ in 1926 a magazine dedicated to what he called ‘scientific-fiction’ which fostered and encouraged the development of the genre. He died on 19 Aug 1967.

Damon Runyon, Manhattan, Kansas

Journalist, Short Story Writer, Runron was best known for his book ‘Guys and Dolls’ which was written in regional slang which was his trademark. He enlisted in the army at the age of 14 and served overseas in the Spanish-American war. For 10 years after the war, he wrote for Western newspapers as a political commentator and feature writer although his passion was sports. In 1911 he moved to New York, reporting on sports. It was here that he developed his own style of reporting which focussed on the human interest rather than the sporting angle. [Ed Alnilam in paran with his Mercury giving him different views and opinions] He also gathered the material that became the foundation of Guys and Dolls. He died on 10 Dec 1946.

Hermann Rorschach, Zurich, Switzerland

Psychiatrist, Rorschach developed the inkblot test that is used for diagnosing psychopathological illnesses. The son of an art teacher, he considered becoming an artist but chose medicine instead. At school, his nickname was Kleck, which means inkblot and was a reference to his sketching. He received his medical degree in 1912 and worked in Russia for a year. He was interested in psychoanalysis and in 1917 discovered the work of Szyman Hens who had explored the fantasies of his subjects using inkblot cards. Rorschach developed his own and used them with his clients asking them ‘what might this be?’ Their responses enabled him to discern intelligence, perceptive abilities and emotional characteristics.[Ed A nice example of Alnilam with his Saturn] He published his findings in 1921 but there was little response although today his methods are used for psychological and intelligence evaluation. He died on 2 April 1922.

Jerome Kern, New York, New York

Composer, Kern is best known as the creator of ‘Showboat’ which inaugurated serious musical theatre. He studied music and in 1903 went to Germany and London returning to New York in 1905. In 1912 he produced ‘The Red Petticoat’ the first production with his own music. In 1933 he moved to Hollywood and composed music for films. He died on 11 Nov 1945.

Leon Teisserenc de Bort, Paris, France

Metereologist, French meteorologist who discovered the stratosphere, thus paving the way for further study of the upper atmosphere.

In 1880 Teisserenc began his career in the meteorological department of the Administrative Centre of National Meteorology in Paris. He journeyed to Africa in 1883, 1885, and 1887 to study geology and terrestrial magnetism, and in 1892 he became chief meteorologist to the centre. Four years later he resigned and set up his own private meteorological observatory. One of the pioneers in the use of unmanned, instrumented balloons, he sent them up to study the characteristics of the atmosphere. He found that above an altitude of about 7 miles (11 km), the atmospheric temperature remained relatively constant at all heights. In 1900 he concluded that the atmosphere must be divided into two layers: the troposphere, where the temperature changed constantly and therefore induced changing weather, and the stratosphere, where the temperature was constant and which he considered a region of unchanging weather conditions. He died on 2 Jan 1913.

Tomoyuki Yamashita, Kochi, Japan

Soldier, Japanese general known for his successful attack on Singapore during World War II, at which time he demanded an ‘unconditional surrender’ from the British Army. He graduated from the War College in 1916 and served as military attache at the Austrian embassy. He was appointed district commander in Manchuria and later teh Philippines. His failure to prevent the landing of US military forces there eventually led to the Japanese defeat in Southeast Asia. Tried for war crimes, he was hanged on 23 Feb 1946.

Hugo Ball, Pirmasens, Germany

Actor, Dramatist, Critic, A harsh social critic, and an early critical biographer of the German novelist Hermann Hesse. He studied sociology and philosophy in Munich and went to Berlin in 1910 to become a actor. He was a founder of the Dadaist movement in art. [Ed: His anger and frustration is reflected in Hamal in paran with Saturn]

A staunch pacifist, [Ed: Zosma with his Moon] Ball left Germany during WWI and moved to neutral Switzerland in 1916. He died in 1927.

Ma Rainey, Columbus, Georgia

Singer, Rainey is considered the ‘mother of the blues’, the first of the black professional blues vocalists. From 1904, she toured the southern United States, singing in camps, tent shows and cabarets. She toured right through the 1920’s, leading her own troupe of singers and musicians which included Bessie Smith and ‘Georgia’ Tom Dorsey. Ma Rainey recorded over 90 songs between 1923 and 1928 with a number of blues and jazz musicians. She retired in 1933 and operated two theatres and joined the Friendship Baptist Church where her brother was a deacon. [Ed: Deneb adige in paran to her Venus not only gives her a poetic soul but also pressure her to find spiritual substance]. Rainey died on 22 Dec 1939.

Siegfried Sassoon, Kent, United Kingdom

Poet, Sassoon was known for his anti-war poetry. He enlisted in WWI and was seriously wounded twice while serving in France. He became widely known for his anti-war poetry and his public support of pacifism after he was awarded the Military Cross and he made public his sentiments. His comments were at first attributed to shellshock and he was confined to a sanatorium for the supposed condition. [Ed: Zosma culminating with his Sun firstly makes him the victim then secondly focuses his life into trying to stop others becoming a victim]. There he met another committed pacifist and poet, Wilfred Owen. Own was also a soldier and after he was killed in the Western Front, Sassoon published Owen’s work. He also published a number of fictionalised autibiographies which decried the violence and brutality of war. He died on1 Sep 1967.

Diego Rivera, Guanajuato, Guanajuato, Mexico

Painter, Mexican muralist whose left-wing politics and gigantic murals stimulated the art of freso painting in North and Latin America. Rivera gained a government scholarship to art school but was expelled because of his participation in student riots. He travelled to Europe where he exhibited his works. He returned to Mexico in 1921 and was commissioned to do a series of frescoes for government institutions. These received great response and he was invited, in 1931, to exhibit his work in New York. While there, he received a commission for a mural at the Detroit Institute of Arts. This was met with some criticism but the worst came with this mural at the Rockefeller Centre in New York where he was attacked because one of the labour figures was thought to resemble Lenin. The mural was completely destroyed but Rivera managed to recreate in in Mexico. Conservative elements in the USA considered him too radical and Rivera never exhibited there again. (Achernar in paran with his Sun) His notorious love affair and marriage with painter, Frida Kahlo also coloured his life. Rivera died on 25 Nov 1957.

Vidkum Quisling, Fyresdal, Norway

Collaborator, Quisling’s notoriety is based on his collaboration with Nazi occupying forces during World War II. His name (Quisling) has become a byword for traitor. He entered the army in 1911 and served as military attache in Russia and Finland. He served in government but resigned in 1933 to form the fascist National Union Party but he failed to gain a seat. He met Hitler in 1939 where he urged him to occupy Norway and after the German invasion in 1940, proclaimed himself head of government. Although his government did not survive, he continued as ‘minister president’ under a Nazi Reich commissioner. Quisling attempted to convert schools, churches and the young to National Socialism but raised the ire and opposition of Norwegians. After the war, he was tried, found guilty of treason and executed. He died on 24 Oct 1945.

Chiang Kai-Shek, Chikou, China Chekiang

Soldier, Statesman, Chiang was born to a prosperous merchant and farmer family. In his youth he prepared for a military career. From 1909 to 11 he served in the Japanese Army, whose Spartan ideals he admired and adopted. Chiang returned home to China at the outbreak of the revolution a firm republican. From 1911 to 1915 Chiang fought for the revolutionary cause. He then become in a secret society involved in financial manipulations. He rejoined public life by joining the fight to reunify China. Treachery followed treachery as Chiang tried to unit the warlords of southern China. In desperation Chiang and the revolutionists, turned to the Soviet Union for help to build their own army. With this help Chiang was able to overthrow the warlords and eventually gain control over China. In 1934 he launched the ‘New Life Movement’ to inculcate Confucian morals into the country and to promote western hygiene and urged conscious emulation of the Japanese as models of Spartan discipline. [Ed: His devotion to a military or spiritual code of life is reflected in Ras Algethi in paran with his Mars]. In 1937 Chiang went to war with Japan and was eventually joined by the Allies in World War II. At the completion of WWII civil war broke out in China with a struggle against the Communists and Chiang’s government. By 1949 the People’s Republic of China was established and Chiang and fled to the island of Taiwan where he continued to fight. In 1955 the US signed an agreement with Chiang guaranteeing the defence of his Nationalist government.

Among the reasons for Chiang’s defeat in China is the frequently cited corruption that he countenanced in his government but in addition what aided his downfall was his growing loss of flexibility in dealing with changing conditions. Growing more rigid he became less responsive to popular sentiment and to new ideas. He prized loyalty more then competence and depended on a trusted clique rather then new incoming ideas and people. He died in 1975.

Conrad Hilton, San Antonio, New Mexico, USA

Businessman, Hilton was the founder of the world’s largest hotel chain, the Hilton International Hotels. As a boy, he helped his father turn their house into an inn for travelling salesmen and by 1915 was a partner in the business. After his father’s death in 1918, Hilton went on to expand the family business buying hotels all over the USA. Although the Depression hurt the company, it continued to prosper. The Hilton Corporation was formed in 1946 and by 1948 the company expanded its activities internationally. Hilton died on 3 Jan 1979. [Ed: His stars have been set for a pre-dawn birth]

Thomas Sopwith,London, United Kingdom

Aircraft Designer, British aircraft designer whose firm was famous for such British World War I military aircraft as the Sopwith Camel and Triplane. Sopwith taught himself to fly in 1910 and in that year won the de Forest prize for the longest flight to the European continent. Two years later he founded Sopwith Aviation Company, Ltd., and won the first aerial derby flying a Bleriot monoplane. During World War I his firm produced many military aircraft, including the Pup, Camel, 1 1/2-Strutter, and Triplane. During World War II his company built the Hurricane fighter and the Lancaster bomber. [Ed: Spica with his Mars shows his design skills]. He was knighted in 1953 and died on 27 Jan 1989.

Selman Waksman, Priluki, Ukraine

Biochemist, Ukrainian-born U.S. biochemist considered one of the world’s foremost authorities on soil microbiology; after the discovery of penicillin, he played a major role in initiating a calculated, systematic search for antibiotics among microbes. His consequent discovery of the antibiotic streptomycin, the first specific agent effective in the treatment of tuberculosis, brought him the 1952 Nobel Prize for Medicine or Physiology. A naturalized U.S. citizen (1916), Waksman spent most of his career at Rutgers University, New Brunswick, N.J., where he served as professor of soil microbiology (1930-40), professor of microbiology and chairman of the department (1940-58), and director of the Rutgers Institute of Microbiology (1949-58). During his extensive studies, he extracted antibiotics (a term he coined in 1941) valuable for their killing effect not only on gram-positive bacteria, against which penicillin is effective, but also on gram-negative bacteria, of which the tubercle bacillus is one. In 1943 he and his associates extracted the streptomycin and found that it exercised repressive influence on tuberculosis. In combination with other chemotherapeutic agents, streptomycin has become a major factor in controlling the disease. Waksman also isolated and developed several other antibiotics, including neomycins that are used in treating many infectious diseases of humans, domestic animals, and plants. Among his books are Principles of Soil Microbiology (1927), regarded as one of the most exhaustive works on the subject, and My Life with the Microbes (1954), an autobiography. he died on 16 Aug 1973.

John Baird, Helensburgh, United Kingdom

Inventor, Baird was the first man to televise pictures of objects in motion. His first success was to produced televised objects in outline in 1924, leading to transmitted recognizable human faces in 1925, and demonstrated the televising of moving objects in 1926 at the Royal Institution, London. The German post office gave him facilities to develop a television service in 1929. When the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) television service began in 1936, his system was in competition with one promoted by Marconi Electric and Musical Industries, and in February 1937 the BBC adopted the Marconi EMI system exclusively. Baird demonstrated colour television in 1928 and was reported to have completed his researches on stereoscopic television in 1946. He died in 1946.

Thomas Edward Lawrence, Caernarvon, Wales, United Kingdom

Scholar, Military Strategist, Better known as ‘Lawrence of Arabia’, his legendary war activities in the Middle East were recorded in his book ‘The Seven Pillars of Wisdom’. His father, a nobleman, fled Ireland with his daughters’ governess and settled in Oxford in 1896. The young Lawrence received a classical education and in 1909 his interest in medieval military architecture led him to travel through France cataloguing Crusader castles. The work gained him first class honours in 1910 and was published as ‘Crusader Castles’ in 1936. Between 1911-1914 he worked on an archaeological dig in the Middle East, learned several of the local languages and took part in a mapping expedition of Gaza and Sinai. When World War I broke out his knowledge was recognised and he developed a way of undermining Germany’s Turkish allies by fomenting revolt among the Arab tribes. He was demobilised on 31 July 1919 and became an important lobbyist for Arab independence. He went back to the Middle East in 1921 looking for material for a new book. His exploits which had found public favour, hounded him and he enlisted under an assumed name and in 1927 formally adopted the name T E Shaw. The narratives of his exploits and daring also created rumours which saw him accussed of being a Russian spy and returned to England. His semi-fictionalised account of life as an Air Force recruit also caused ripples in Whitehall and was never published. He translated Homer’s Odyssey into English prose and published a number of essays on guerilla warfare. He remained in the Air Force as a lowly mechanic and was discharged on 26 Feb 1935. He retired to his cottage and was alternately full of optimism and emptiness. A motorcycle accident on 13 May 1935 resolved his dilemna and he died on 19 May 1935 without regaining consciousness.

Maxwell Anderson, Atlantic, Pennsylvania

Playwright, A Pulitzer Prize winning historical playwright who was in vogue in the 1920s. His most notable work was the adaptation from Remarque’s novel ‘All Quiet on the Western Front’. He won the Pulitzer Prize for ‘Both Your Houses’ in 1933.

Herbert Yardley, Worthington, Indiana

Code Breaker, US cryptographer who organised and directed the US government’s first formal code-breaking efforts during and after World War I. As a young man Yardley displayed a talent for mathematics and began a lifelong fascination with the game of poker. At 23 (1912) he entered the US State Department as a coding clerk and, discovering a remarkable aptitude for cryptology, was soon making recommendations to improve and protect government codes. [Vega in paran with Jupiter indicates his love of problems].In 1917, he was placed in charge of MI18, the code-breaking section of the Military Intelligence Division. After World War I he proposed that a permanent organisation be created ‘for code and cipher investigation and attack’. In 1919 a joint body, funded by the State Department and the military, was established with Yardley in charge. In 1921 this group broke the Japanese diplomatic code and provided information that the State Department used to advantage during the Washington Naval Disarmament Conference. The group was eventually disbanded and Yardley, unable to find employment, published in 1931 ‘The American Black Chamber’, describing in detail the workings of the code group. As a result 19 nations changed their diplomatic codes. In 1938 Chinese nationalist Chiang Kai-shek engaged Yardley to break the codes of the Japanese army then invading China. He remained there until 1940, when he went to Canada to set up a cryptology service. Yardley also wrote ‘The Education of a Poker Player’ (1957). He died on 7 Aug 1958.

Igor Sikorsky, Kiev, Ukraine

Aircraft Designer, Sikorsky is best known for his design of the helicopter. His passion for aircraft started at an early age when he built a model flying machine powered by an elastic band. He entered the naval academy in 1903 but his interest in engineering saw him leave in 1906 and pursue his interest. He made contact with the Wright brothers and believed that the only way to fly was to go straight up based on Leonardo Da Vinci’s concept. This had to wait 30 years before he could successfully develop the helicopter but in the meantime he entered the field of fixed wing aircraft and gained a reputation for his designs. He emigrated to the US in 1919 and in 1939 lifted off on his first flight in a helicopter. On 6 May 1941 he established an international endurance record for his design. His vision for the helicopter was to provide rescue and relief during disasters but the military use of the helicopter was realised during the Korean and later Vietnam wars. Sikorsky was honoured for his aeronautical and engineering innovations. He died on 26 Oct 1972.

Anna Akhmatova, Odesa, Ukraine

Poet,Considered to be the greatest Russian female poet. She moved to Kiev to study and then to St Petersburg. She married in 1910 and with her husband started the Neoclassicist Acmeist movement. She was officially silenced in 1922 after the publication of ‘Anno Domini’. This ban on her working lasted until 1940. However, in 1946 her work was again banned and in 1956 she was rehabilitated and received official tributes on her death. [Ed: The harsh treatment of her work is reflected in the paran of Alphard culminating with her Saturn].

Erle Stanley Gardner, Malden, Massachusetts

Author, Lawyer, Erle Stanley Gardner is best remembered as the author of detective novels and the creator of the detective-lawyer, Perry Mason. Gardner travelled extensively, dropped out of university and moved to California. He worked as a typist in a law firm and was admitted to the bar in 1911. He became an advocate for poor Chinese and Mexican migrants and his concern for the friendless and those unjustly accussed led him to found The Court of Last Resort in the 1940’s.[Ed: His Sun with Zuben Eschamali showing his social awarness as well as his ambition to play a role in influence the situation]. The organisation was dedicated to helping those unjustly imprisoned. He began writing courtroom dramas which were based on his cases for pulp magazines and by 1932 he was a household name. The first of the Perry Mason novels appeared in 1933 and he gave up law altogether to concentrate on his writing. A total of 80 Perry Mason novels were written and Gardner also supervised their adaptation for radio, television and film. [Ed: His changing career and his talent for problem solving can be seen by the paran of Procyon with his Mercury]. He died on 11 Mar 1970.

Vladimir Zworykin, Murom, Russia

Inventor, Russian-born U.S. electronic engineer, inventor, and the father of modern television.

After education at the St. Petersburg Institute of Technology and the College de France, in Paris, Zworykin served during World War I in the Russian Signal Corps. He immigrated to the United States in 1919 and became a naturalized citizen in 1924. In 1920 he joined the Westinghouse Electric Corporation in Pittsburgh, and in 1923 he filed a patent application for the iconoscope, or television transmission tube, and in 1924 an application for the kinescope, or television receiver. These two inventions formed the first all-electronic television system. Zworykin’s television, demonstrated in 1929 impressed an official of Radio Corporation of America (RCA). Zworykin was offered a position as director of electronic research of RCA at Camden, N.J., and subsequently at Princeton, N.J., to continue the development of his invention.

He also developed a colour-television system, for which he received a patent in 1928. His other developments in electronics include an early form of the electric eye and innovations in the electron microscope. His electron image tube, sensitive to infrared light, was the basis for the sniperscope and the snooperscope, devices first used in World War II for seeing in the dark. His secondary-emission multiplier was used in the scintillation counter, one of the most sensitive of radiation detectors.

In later life Zworykin lamented the way television had been abused to titillate and trivialize subjects rather than for the educational and cultural enrichment of audiences.

Named an honorary vice president of RCA in 1954, from then until 1962 Zworykin also served as director of the medical electronics centre of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research (now Rockefeller University) in New York City. In 1967 the National Academy of Sciences awarded him the National Medal of Science for his contributions to the instruments of science, engineering, and television and for his stimulation of the application of engineering to medicine. He was also founder-president of the International Federation for Medical Electronics and Biological Engineering, a recipient of the Faraday Medal from Great Britain (1965) and the U.S. Presidential Medal of Science (1966), and a member of the U.S. National Hall of Fame from 1977. He died on 29 July 1982 in Princeton, N.J., U.S.

Eliezer Sukenik, Bialystok, Poland

Archaeologist, Polish-born Israeli archaeologist who identified the antiquity of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Sukenik settled in Palestine in 1912. Sukenik’s numerous excavations led to remarkable discoveries. He found remnants of an important Hyksos fortification at Tell Jerishe and directed the clearance of the Third Wall in Jerusalem (1925-27), later publishing, The Third Wall of Jerusalem (1930). His publication The Ancient Synagogue of Beth Alpha (1932) made famous the mosaic pavement he had unearthed there and expanded the frontiers of the history of Jewish art. Sukenik’s keen interest in numismatics led to his identification of the oldest Jewish coins of the period of Persian domination. His familiarity with the script of the epitaphs of the Jewish necropolis in Jerusalem, dating from the last century (c. 30 BC-AD 70) of the Second Temple, enabled him to recognize that the scrolls found in the first Qumran cave in 1947 dated from that same period. His book The Dead Sea Scrolls of the Hebrew University was published posthumously in 1955. He died on 28 Feb 1953.

Vyacheslav Molotov, Nolinsk, Russia

Statesman, Molotov was a member of the Bolshevik Party and when the Bolsheviks came to power he worked in several areas. He rose quickly through the ranks of the party and was instrumental in purging it of anti-Stalinist members. He served in foreign affairs but he is remembered for lending his name to bottles of inflammable liquid known as ‘Molotov cocktails’. These were produced in World War II on his instruction. Molotov served the Russian Communist Party in various uses but lost his influence when he was expelled for anti-party activities which included a role in the unsuccessful attempt to depose Kruschev in 1957.

Anthony Fokker, Kediri, Jawa Timur, Indonesia

Aviator, Fokker was a pilot and aircraft pioneer who produced over 40 different types of aircraft during World War I. He built his first plane in 1910 and in 1912 established his own aircraft factory near Berlin. During the war, he offered his planes to both sides but the allies turned him down. During the 1920’s and 1930’s he developed a number of commercial aircraft which were used by the fledgling aviation industry. Fokker died on 23 Dec 1939. [Ed: Toliman with his Jupiter shows his success by persisting with his ideas].

Katherine Anne Porter, Indian Creek, TX, USA

Short Story Writer, Novelist, Best known for her short stories, Porter worked as a journalist and in 1920 went to Mexico and two years later her first story was published. A book of her stories appeared in 1930 and a later, expanded edition in 1935. Her prolific writing was published in anthologies, one of which won her a Pullitzer Prize in 1965. Her articles, reviews and essays were also published in two editions. Porter also wrote a novel in 1962. She died on 18 Sep 1980.

Theda Bara, Cincinnati, Ohio

Actress, sex symbol, Bara, was an early silent-film star who was the first screen vamp who lured men to destruction. Her films set the vogue for sophisticated sexual themes in motion poctures and made her an international symbol of daring new freedom. [Ed: Capella on her nadir in paran with her Venus in fall describes how she became a symbol for a different set of social ideals].

Her first film ‘A Fool There was’ in 1915 was released with intense publicity that made her an overnight success. She was billed as the daughter of an Eastern potentate, he name an anagram of ‘Arab Death’. She retired in 1920.

Harland Sanders, Henryville, Indiana

Businessman, Harland Sanders is better known as ‘Colonel Sanders’ the founder, whose image became the trademark of Kentucky Fried Chicken. [Ed: Scheat with his Moon indicates his different ideas on matters of food.] Sanders left school after the seventh grade, trying his hand at a variety of jobs until, in 1929 he opened Sanders Cafe at the rear of a service station. He specialised in family meals that had tremendous appeal and he received his honorary title of ‘Colonel’ from the Governor of Kentucky in 1935. In 1939, he perfected his recipe for ‘finger-lickin good’ chicken. He sold his restaurant and proceeded to travel around the country signing up other restaurants to serve his recipe. By 1964, there were more than 600 franchises. Sanders signed over the company in return for a lifetime salary and a seat on the board of directors. He continued to be the company’s official ambassador until his death on 16 Dec 1980. [Murzims, the Announcer, on his nadir with his Mercury shows his business skill and his new message in take-away food].

Edwin Armstrong, New York, New York

Inventor, Armstrong was raised in a devoutly Presbyterian family. His father was a publisher and his mother was a schoolteacher. At the age of 14 he was inspired to become a inventor with a deep interest in radio. He studied at Columbia University, and was totally consumed with his solitary work on his inventions. By 1939 he had perfected the frequency-modulation system of radio transmission (known as FM) which virtually eliminated the problem of interference from static. He then spent the rest of his life in a bitter struggle against RCA radios who firstly tried to discredit his invention and than second tried to steal his inventions. He suicided in 1954 a poor man.

David Sarnoff, Minsk, Belarus

Pioneer in Broadcasting, Sarnoff spent his early years preparing for a career as a Talmudic scholar. He emigrated with his family to the USA in 1900 and in 1906 left school to work for a telegraph company. Grasping the importance of this new device, he bought his own telegraph instrument and learned Morse code. [Ed: Capella on his nadir in paran with his Mercury shows that his life will embody this ability to see the potential in new ideas. In addition Polaris with his Moon gave his a tendency towards being single-minded in his goals]. He moved on to being a radio operator with the Marconi Wireless Telegraphy Company. Several years later, after working in various situations, he became operator of the world’s most powerful radio station. It was here that on 14 April 1914, Sarnoff received the distress signal from the sinking Titanic. Remaining at his post for 3 days he relayed messages and news of the disaster. [Ed: this unfortunate event proved to be lucky for Sarnoff and it promoted his new idea, this is an expression of Saladmelek with his Mars]. Sarnoff gained quick promotion and in 1916 proposed the sale of ‘radio music boxes’ that is domestic radio receivers. But in was not until 1921 that he demonstrated the commercial potential of the sets by broadcasting a high profile boxing match. He became chairman of RCA in 1930 and then went on to form NBC (National Broadcasting Company). He had also realised the potential of television and launched the experimental NBC TV and by by the late 1930’s showcased the new medium at the New York World Fair. After the end of WWII, where he served as Eisenhower’s communications consultant, Sarnoff became chairman of the board in 1947 and retired in 1970. He died on 12 Dec 1971.

Samuel Morse, Charlestown, MA, USA

Inventor, Morse is remembered as the inventor of Morse code and an early developer of the telegraph. [Ed Menkar in paran to his Mercury, he work become the basses of a communication revolution]. His academic achievements were mediocre but his interest was sparked by the early experiments in electricity. He was also an excellent miniatue portrait painter. He graduated from Yale in 1810 and went to England to further his study in painting. Returning in 1815, he reluctantly took up portrait painting to pay his bills. He was also a gifted leader and helped establish the National Academy of Design in 1826 to promote respect for artists. In 1832, while returning from Europe by ship he conceived of the idea of an electric telepgraph producing a working model in 1835. By 1838 he had developed the system of dots and dashes that became known as Morse Code and in 1839 transmitted the first successful message. As the concept was adopted across the USA and Europe, Morse became a wealthy man but he was also engulfed in a series of court battles involving his invention, religion, art and other new technical developments such as the daguerrotype. He died on 2 Apr 1872.

Edith Stein, Breslau, Poland

Philosopher, Martyr, Carmelite nun, philosopher, and spiritual writer who was executed by the Nazis because of her Jewish ancestry and who is regarded as a modern martyr. Born into an Orthodox Jewish family, Stein renounced her faith in 1904 and became an atheist. As a univeristy student she became interested in, phenomenology, which sought to describe phenomena as consciously experienced, without theorising about their causes. She received her doctorate in philosophy (1916). Attracted to Roman Catholicism, Stein returned in 1921 to Breslau, where her profound encounter with the autobiography of the mystic St. Teresa of Ávila caused her swift conversion. She was baptised on Jan. 1, 1922, and went to teach (1922-32) at a Dominican girls’ school in Speyer. There she translated St. Thomas Aquinas’ De veritate (‘On Truth’) and familiarized herself with Roman Catholic philosophy in general. In 1932 she became a lecturer at the Institute for Pedagogy at Münster but, because of anti-Semitic legislation passed by the Nazi government, was forced to resign the post the following year. In 1934 she entered the Carmelite order. There she completed her metaphysical work [Ed: Vega in paran with her Sun giving her a devout spiritual life]. Finite and Eternal Being. In 1938, she was transferred to the Carmelite convent at Echt in The Netherlands, where it was thought she would be safe from persecution. There she wrote her important treatise The Science of the Cross. In 1942, she was seized by the Gestapo and shipped to Auschwitz where she died on Aug. 9/10, 1942. On May 1, 1987, she was beatified by Pope John Paul II. [Ed: Her strong principles and dignity are reflected by Schedar in paran with her Mercury].

Joyce Hall, David City, Nebraska

Businessman, Hall was the founder of Hallmark cards and helped create the modern greeting card industry. In 1910 he established a mail order greeting card company and his two brothers eventually joined him. The cheap card and envelope became a successful business and the Hallmark brand name was introduced in 1923. Hall was obsessed with projecting an image of quality and the company incorporated the works of artists such as Norman Rockwell and Grandma Moses into their gallery of designs. Hall retired in 1966 but continued to be active on the company board until his death on 29 Oct 1982.

Manfred Baron von Richtofen, Breslau, Poland

Aviator, The Red Baron, Top German aviator of World War I, he followed in his father’s footsteps and embarked on a military career. He transferred to the Imperial Air Service in 1915, shortly after the outbreak of war, entered combat as a fighter pilot in 1916. He gained command of Fighter Group I that became known as ‘Richtofen’s Flying Circus’ because of the decorated, scarlet planes they flew. He was credited with shooting down 80 enemy aircraft and was nicknamed ‘Red Baron’. Richtofen was shot down when he was caught in enemy ground fire. (Ed: His great skill as an aviator and fighter pilot was based on the confidence he had in his skills in the air, this is expressed in his chart by Alderamin in paran with his Venus). He died on 21 April 1918.

Alexander Alekhine, Moscow, Russia

Chess Master, Alekhine became addicted to chess from the age of 11 and gained the title of master at St Petersburg in 1909. After the Russian Revolution, he worked as a magistrate in France, and became a French citizen. He won the world championship in 1927 and defended it successfully for nearly 20 years. [Ed His devotion to chess can be seen by his Jupiter in paran with Pollux; the love of solving problems and a mental addiction to one subject].

John William Alcock, Manchester, United Kingdom

Aviator, Alcock worked as a test pilot for Vickers Aircraft after serving in WWI as a captain in the Royal Naval Air Service. On 14th June 1919, with Arthur Whitten Brown as navigator, he piloted a Vickers-Vimy biplane non-stop from St John’s Newfoundland to Clifden, Galway, Ireland, in a time of 16 h 27 min, soon afterwards Alcock was killed in an aeroplane accident in France.

Francisco Franco, El Ferrol del Caudil, Spain

Military Leader, Dictator, Franco overthrew the democratic republic in Spain and was head of government until his death. His father was considered an eccentric wastrel and Franco was a serious boy who clung to a conservative and pious mother. He was destined for a naval career but instead, in 1907 he joined the army and graduated three years later. He saw active duty in Morocco and quickly rose through the ranks. He made brigadier general at 33 and became head of the newly formed military academy. The overthrow of the monarchy in 1931 and an anti-military government saw him suspended from active duty but a change of government saw him reinstated in 1933. The growing unrest and anarchy saw him appeal to the government to declare a state of emergency. He was refused, removed from his position and sent to an obscure post in the Canary Islands. On 18 July 1936 he issued a manifesto that announced a military rebellion that was the start of the Spanish Civil War. Three years later on 1 Apr 1939 he won an unconditional victory. Although never a popular ruler, he ruled Spain until his death on 20 Nov 1975. [In many ways his Saturnian but hero like rule of Spain is expressed by his Saturn in paran with Vega culminating].

Wilfred Owen, Oswestry, United Kingdom

Poet, *English poet whose work is noted for its anger at the cruelty of war. Owen moved to live in France in 1913 after an illness and was already writing poetry when the World War I broke out. He enlisted in 1915 and tasted the horrors of trench warfare which aroused his anger and pity for ‘those who die as cattle’. He was wounded and invalided in 1917 and while recuperating in England, met the poet Siegfried Sassoon who was an important influence. After his recovery, Owen chose to go back to the fighting and was awarded the Military Cross in October 1918. He died in action on 4 Nov 1918. His work was published posthumously by Sassoon.

Mary Pickford, Toronto, Canada

Motion-picture Actor, Pickford, one of the earliest screen stars, became known as ‘America’s Sweetheart’ during the era of silent films. She made her first stage appearance at the age of 5, went on tour from the age of eight and ten years later was appearing on Broadway. She began her film career working with D W Griffith in 1909 and by 1913 was doing exclusively film work. She became one of the richest and most famous women of the silver screen. In 1919, she was a driving force in the formation of the United Artists Corporation together with Charles Chaplin, Douglas Fairbanks and D W Griffith [Ed Alhena culminating as her Mercury set]. She married and divorced several times: in 1911 to Owen Moore, in 1920 to Douglas Fairbanks and in 1937 to Charles Rogers. Pickford retired from films in the early 1930’s and died on 28 May 1979.

Dorothy Sayers, Oxford, United Kingdom

Novelist, Scholar, Sayers is best known for her detective novels featuring the debonnaire Lord Peter Wimsey. Her stories combine wit, scholarly knowledge and cultural erudition. She received a degree in medieval literature from the Univeristy of Oxford in 1915 and was one of the first female graduates of that institution. Her first novel (Whose Body?) was published in 1923 and for the next fifteen years she published one or two novels a year. [Ed: One of the reasons for her success as a writer was her well-researched and methodical approach to her work that is expressed by Deneb Algedi in paran with her Mercury]. She also created the character Montagu Egg. In her later years, her writing turned to theological and philosophical topics. She died on 17 Dec 1957.

Charles Atlas, Acri, Italy

Body-Building, Born in Italy he emigrated to the USA with his parents. Dissatisfied with his poor physique, he took up body-building, and became popularly know as ‘America’s Most Perfect Developed Man’. He successfully marketed a mail-order body-building course. He died in 1972.

Mao Tse-Tung, Siangtan, China Hunan

Statesman and Leader, Mao was the son of a peasant who had been an affluent farmer. He left the family farm at the age of 13 to study in Changshe, where he was introduced to Western ideas. While at university he became politically aware and became a Marxist and a founding member of the Chinese Communist Party (1921).

After the break with the Nationalist Party in July 1927 the Communists were driven from the cities. In this period Mao developed the guerrilla tactics of the ‘people’s war’. In 1934 he lead his people on what later become known as the Long March so that the Communist forces could set up a new base in Shanxi. In 1936 under increasing threat of Japanese invasion the Nationalist renewed their alliance with the Communists. Mao then restored and vastly increased the political and military power of his Party (Achernar with Saturn). He then lead a civil war movement which in 1949 proclaimed the People’s Republic of China with Mao as President as well as Chairman of the Party. [Ed: Toliman with his Moon showing him to be a leader with a cause].

The Party was organised along strict centralist, hierarchical lines and increasingly became a vehicle of personal dictatorship.[Ed: Canopus in paran with his Sun showing both the leadership qualities as well as the potential for dictatorship]. In domestic terms he pursued a radical and far-reaching attempt to transform traditional Chinese society and its economy, using thought reform, indoctrination and the psychological transformation of the masses. In 1958 he launched the Great Leap Forward which was to encourage the rapid advancement of industrial and agricultural industry, harnessing surplus rural labour orgainsed into huge communes. He lost influence over it failure. In 1965 he launched the Cultural Revolution. His ideas at this time were popularised by ‘The Little Red Book’. During his final years ill health weakened his grip on power and since his death (1976) his views have been criticised inside and outside of China.

,Andres Segovia,Linares, Andalucia, Spain

Musician,Foremost guitarist of the 20th century, Segovia is credited with re-establishing the guitar as concert instrument. He was essentially self-taught as no teacher was easily available. He gave his first public concert in 1909. By 1916 he was performing regularly and between 1919-23 he toured South America and was recognised internationally by 1924. He widened the musical repertory of the guitar by transcribing work written for the lute and harpsichord as well as inspiring modern composers to write for it. [Ed: Laying foundations to raise an instrument to classical standards, in other words to be taken seriously is very much the expression of Deneb Algedi with his Venus]

Isaak Babel, Odesskoye, Russia

Writer, Soviet short-story writer noted for his war stories and Odessa tales. He was considered an innovator in the early Soviet period and enjoyed a brilliant reputation in the early 1930s. Born into a Jewish family, Babel grew up in an atmosphere of persecution that is reflected in the sensitivity, pessimism, and morbidity of his stories. His first works, later included in his Odesskiye rasskazy (‘Odessa Tales’), were published in 1916 but the tsarist censors considered them crude and obscene. He then became a soldier in the war with Poland and out of that campaign came the group of stories known as Konarmiya (1926; Red Cavalry). These stories present different aspects of war through the eyes of an inexperienced, intellectual young Jew who reports everything graphically and with naive precision. [Ed: Isaak’s love of information in an almost joyful manner is symbolised by Ras Alhague in paran with his Jupiter]. Though senseless cruelty often pervades the stories, they are lightened by a belief that joy and happiness must exist somewhere, if only in the imagination.

By the 1930s communist critics began to question whether his works were compatible with official literary doctrine (Aculeus with his Sun). After the mid-1930s Babel lived in silence and obscurity. In May 1939 he was arrested, and he died in a prison camp in Siberia. After Stalin’s death in 1953, Babel was rehabilitated, and his stories were again published in the Soviet Union.

Fritz Sauckel, Hassfurt, Germany

Nazi politician, Sauckel was Hitler’s chief recruiter of slave labour which powered German industry during WWII. He served in the German navy during WWI and the ship he was on was captured. He saw out the rest of the war as a prisoner in England. He joined the Nazi Party in the 1920’s and rose to positions of power until the second World War where he was Hitler’s chief commissioner for the utilization of manpower. He travelled through the occupied territories recruiting slave labour from the civilian population. After the war, he was tried as a war criminal and was executed. He was accused of having managed a program which deported five million people in cruel and insufferable conditions. He died on 16 Oct 1946.

Ove Arup, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom

Civil Engineer, Arup studied the philosophy and engineering in Denmark before moving to London in 1923. He became increasingly concerned with the solution of structural problems in Modernist architecture and was responsible for the structural design of Coventry Cathedral and St Catherine’s College, Oxford. [Ed: His desire to solve difficult problems in design and space is a positive reflection of his Saturn in paran with Capulus]. He later evolved the structural design that permitted the realization of the Sydney Opera House (1956 to 1973). He died in 1988.

Immanuel Velikovsky, Smolensk, Russia

Cosmogenist, Historian, American writer, proponent of controversial theories of cosmogony and history. [Ed: Pollux with his Mercury indicating his love of the contra argument]. Educated at the universities in Edinburgh, Kharkov, and Moscow (M.D., 1921), he practiced medicine in Palestine and then studied psychology in Zurich and (from 1933) Vienna. After examining legends of the ancient Jews and other eastern Mediterranean peoples, he concluded that some tales described actual occurrences and were not mere myths or allegories. In the United States from 1939, he expanded the geographic scope of his study of ancient documents. In his first book, Worlds in Collision (1950), he hypothesized that in historical times an electromagnetic derangement of the solar system caused Venus and Mars to approach the Earth closely, disturbing its rotation, axis inclination, and magnetic field. His later works are Ages in Chaos (1952), revising the chronology of the pre-Christian Middle East; Earth in Upheaval (1955), adducing geologic and paleontological evidence supporting his belief that catastrophes have overwhelmed the Earth; Oedipus and Akhnaton (1960), linking Egyptian history with Greek mythology; and Peoples of the Sea (1977), identifying Ramses III with Nectanebo, pharaohs otherwise dated 800 years apart. He died 17 Nov 1979.

Richard Buckminster Fuller, Milton, Massachusetts

Architect, Buckminster Fuller is known as the inventor of the geodesic dome. He came from a long line of nonconformists. Expelled from Harvard twice he never completed his formal education. His invention of life-saving equipment won him an appointment to the US Naval Academy at Annapolis. In 1917 he married and worked in construction. In 1922, his four year old daughter died as a result of a series of illnesses which included, influenza, polio and spinal meningitis. He blamed this on inadequacies of the environment and in 1927, dedicated himself to a search for design patterns that would maximise the world’s energy resources. His inventions included an autonomous house and an omnidirectional car, the geodesic dome, a system of cartography that presents the world’s land masses without distortion, die-stamped pre-fabrucated bathrooms, tetrahedronal floating cities, underwater geodesic-domed farms and expendable paper domes. He received a number of awards which recognised his contributions. He died on 1 Jul 1983.






David Wechsler, Liesti, Romania

Psychologist, Inventor, U.S. psychologist and inventor of several widely used intelligence tests for adults and children.

Wechsler received his doctorate in 1925, and then began a long association with Bellevue Psychiatric Hospital in New York City, serving as chief psychologist from 1932 to 1967. In 1939 he produced a battery of intelligence tests known as the Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale. He rejected the idea that there is an ideal mental age against which individual performance can be measured, and he defined normal intelligence as the mean test score for all members of an age group; the mean could then be represented by 100 on a standard scale. The Wechsler-Bellevue test quickly became the most widely used adult-intelligence test in the United States, and in 1942, Wechsler issued his first revision. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children was published in 1949 and updated in 1974. In 1955 Wechsler developed yet another adult-intelligence test, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), with the same structure as his earlier scale but standardized against a different population, including 10 percent nonwhites to reflect the general population. The earlier test had been standardized for an all-white population. The WAIS was revised in 1981, shortly before Wechsler’s death. The last of his intelligence tests, the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, was issued in 1967 as an adaptation of the children’s scale for use with very young children. He died on 2 May1981.

Elsa Schiapparelli, Rome, Italy

Fashion Designer, Schaipparelli influenced the fashion world for 40 years emphasising the use of accessories and bold colours. These included padded shoulders (1932); dollar signs and padlock designs in jewelry (pre WWII); fur bed jackets and rhinestone studded lingerie (1940’s); shortie coats in vivid colours (1950’s).

Although born in Italy, she attended schools in France, Switzerland and England. She worked as film script writer and translator in the US and in the late 1920’s settled in Paris where she eventually opened a small shop. By 1935 she was a leader in the fashion world and started to expand into jewellery, cosmetics, lingerie and swimsuits. Along with Christian Dior, she was instrumental in the worldwide commercialisation of Parisian fashion. She died on 13 Nov 1973. [Ed Ankaa in paran with her Venus indicates her talent in the fashion industry]

Ethel Waters, Chester, Delaware, Pennsylvania

Singer, Actress, American blues and jazz singer and dramatic actress, associated with songs she made famous, particularly ‘Dinah,’ ‘Heat Wave,’ and ‘Stormy Weather.’ During the 1930s she made records with Duke Ellington and Benny Goodman. In her autobiography, His Eye Is on the Sparrow (1951), Waters said of her early years of extreme poverty, ‘I stole food to live,’ She was married at the age of 12 while still attending convent school. At 13 she became a chambermaid in a Philadelphia hotel, and the same year she sang in public for the first time in a local nightclub. By the time she was 17 she was singing professionally. It was there that she became the first woman to sing the W.C. Handy classic ‘St. Louis Blues’ on the stage. She moved to New York City and in 1925 she appeared at the Plantation Club in Harlem. Her Broadway debut came in 1927 in the all-Negro revue Africana, but it was not for another three years, when she starred in the Blackbirds revue, that she became fully established. In 1933 she scored a notable success in Irving Berlin’s As Thousands Cheer, in which she sang ‘Heat Wave,’ one of the songs later to become identified with her. In 1940 came the transition from singer to dramatic actress, with her sensitive performance in Cabin in the Sky, and in 1943 she went to Hollywood to appear in the screen version of the play. She returned there five years later to appear in Pinky (1949), a film dealing with racial issues. She made another remarkable appearance in Carson McCullers’ Member of the Wedding, on the stage in 1950 and in the 1953 film version. She died on 1 Sept 1977.

David Alfaro, Chihuahua, Chihuahua, Mexico

Artist, Alfaro was a painter and muralist whose art was informed by his leftist political ideology. He was an activist from his youth taking part in student strikes while studying fine arts in Mexico. In 1913 he left his studies to fight in the Army of the Revolution against Pres. Huerta. Later in his mature years he began orgaising and leading unions of artist and workingmen. In 1928 he was a union emissary to the Soviet Union. Over four decades his union and political activities led to seven jailings and periods of exile. He also taught in Los Angeles in 1932 and was a influence on Jackson Pollock. He died in 1974.

Frederick Winterbotham, Stroud, United Kingdom

Secret Service Official, British secret-service official who played a key role in the ‘ Ultra’ code breaking project during World War II.

Winterbotham joined the the Royal Flying Corps in 1915, and was shot down, and as a prisoner of war he learned to speak German. In 1929 he joined the British secret service (sometimes called MI-6) as chief of its air intelligence department. In 1938 Winterbotham had become aware of a new mechanical encrypting device developed by the Germans, called Enigma. Winterbotham was put in charge of the code breaking operation named Ultra. Winterbotham was made a Commander of the British Empire in 1943 and received the Legion of Merit in 1945. He revealed the story of the Ultra project to the general public in his book The Ultra Secret (1974). [Ed Denebola setting with his Mercury shows that in the later part of his life he is known as someone who has a special way with language.] He died 28 Jan 1990.

Arthur Charles Nielsen, Chicago, Illinois

Market Researcher, Nielsen is best known for his development of the Nielsen ratings which today offers an international system of rating television viewing. He graduated from the University of Wisconsin in 1918 and worked briefly as an engineer. In 1923, with $500 he established A C Nielsen Co that was to become the largest market research company in the world. Though it had early difficulties, the company soon established itself by analysing the retail sales figures of food and drugs. In 1942, the company entered the radio ratings business and in 1950 developed the ratings system for television. Nielsen died on 1 June 1980. [Ed: Murzims, the Announcer and finder of information, culminating with his Moon was nicely expressed in his career in developing the concept of Market Research].

Fritz Zwicky, Varna, Bulgaria

Astronomer, Swiss astronomer and physicist, who made valuable contributions to the theory and understanding of supernovas (stars that for a short time are far brighter than normal). Zwicky received a doctorate in physics (1922) from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, and served on the faculty of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, from 1925 to 1972.

During the early 1930s Zwicky contributed substantially to the physics of the solid state, gaseous ionization, and thermodynamics but soon turned to the study of supernovas, novas, and cosmic rays. In 1934, in collaboration with Walter Baade, he proposed that supernovas are a class of stellar explosion completely different from the ordinary novas and occur less often (two or three times every 1,000 years in the Milky Way Galaxy). Zwicky began conducting an extensive search of neighbouring galaxies for supernovas, and from 1937 to 1941 he discovered 18 of them. Only about 12 had been recorded previously in the history of astronomy.

As director of research (1943-46) of the Aerojet Engineering Corporation, Azusa, Calif., and technical adviser, he developed some of the earliest jet engines, including those used to launch heavy-laden aircraft from short runways. He died on 8. Feb 1974.

Vicente Aleixandre, Seville, Spain

Poet, One of Spains major poets he established his reputation after the publication of a collection of work ‘Mis poemas mejores’ 1937. He was award the Noble Prize for Literature in 1977.

Erich Maria Remarque, Osnabruck, Germany

Novelist, Remarque is best remembered for his novel ‘All Quiet on the Western Front’ which detailed the life of soldiers in the trenches during World War I. Remarque was drafted at 18 and served in the German army. He was wounded several times and after the war, worked as a racing car driver and sportswriter. He published the novel in 1929 and its success was based on the fact it recorded the horrors of war in understated language. [Ed: Antares with his Venus indicates his strong social views concerning war and its horrors] The novel was made into a film in 1930. A sequel in 1931, dealt with the collapse of Germany in 1918. The Nazis burnt his books in 1933. He immigrated to the USA in 1939. He wrote several other novels dealing with the upheavals in Europe during the first and second world wars but they were not as successful. He died on 25 Sep 1970.

Willy Messerschmitt, Frankfurt am Main, Germany

Aircraft Engineer, Designer, Messerschmitt’s designs were the mainstay of the German luftwaffe during World War II. [Ed: Regulus with his Mars showing his design skills as well as his involvement with military matters]. When first produced in 1939, they set the world speed record at 481 miles per hour. Messerschmitt was educated in Munich, receiving an engineering degree in 1923 and then was chief designer for a German firm. The company then became known as Messerschmitt-Aktien-Gesselschaft and supplied the German Luftwaffe with planes. After the war he was detained and the company was banned from aircraft production until 1958. Messerschmitt died on 17 Sep 1978.

Howard Florey, Adelaide, Australia

Pathologist, Florey was responsible for purifying penicillin for clinical use. He shared the 1945 Nobel Prize for Physiology with Alexander Fleming. He studied at the University of Adelaide and at Oxford completing his studies in 1924. He held research positions and in 1939, together with Ernst Chain, he demonstrated the curative powers of penicillin and developed methods for its production. After World War II and the work of his research team, penicillin became available for general use around the world. He died on 21 Feb 1968. [Ed: His birth time has been set to pre dawn as these stars are a better reflection of his life].

Max Theiler, Pretoria, Transvaal, South Africa

Microbiologist, Theiler won the 1951 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his research and development of a vaccine for yellow fever. Theiler graduated from medicine in 1922 and joined the department of tropical medicine at the Harvard Medical School in Boston. There his studies and research into infectious diseases including yellow fever contributed to the development of vaccines used for human immunization. (Acubens in paran with his Sun) Theiler died on 11 Aug 1972.

Ferhat Abbas, Tahifet, Algeria

Nationalist leader, He founded a Muslim Students’ Association in 1924. In 1955 he joined the Front de Liberation National (FLN), the main Algerian resistance organisation, founding in 1958 the Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic in Tunis. After independence in 1962 he was appointed President of the National Constituent Assembly, but fell out of favour he was exiled. He was rehabilitated shortly before his death.

C S Forester, Cairo, Egypt/p>

Novelist, Forester is best known for his novels, ‘Horatio Hornblower’ and ‘The African Queen’. Originally trained as a doctor, he abandoned medicine for writing and in 1926 published his first novel. He was also a war correspondent during the Spanish Civil War as well as in Czechoslovakia during the German occupation. During World War II he wrote propaganda for the British and the Americans. He died on 2 Apr 1966.

Miguel Angel Asturias, Guatemala, Guatemala

Novelist, Poet, A law graduate he spent many years in exile, particularly in Paris, where he studied anthropology. His novels, reflected Mayan Indian influences as well as the exploitation of the banana trade.[Capulus in paran with his Venus gave him a interest in the Mayan Indian’s difficulties at the hands of the Europeans]. He was in the Guatemalan Civil Service from 1946, ambassador to France from 1966 to 1970 and was award the Lenin Peace Prize in 1966 and the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1967. (Acrux with his Venus) He died in 1974.

Leonie Adams, Brooklyn, New York

Poet, Educator, An American poet and educator whose verse interprets emotions and nature with an almost mystical vision. She edited various publicatons as well as lectured and taught in New York City and was the poetry consultant for the Library of Congress (1948 – 9).

Michinomiya Hirohito, Tokyo, Japan

Monarch, Hirohito was emperor of Japan and ruler during World War II. He was well-educated and travelled to Euorpe in 1921, the first Japanese crown prince to travel overseas. He was crowned emperor on 25 Dec 1926 on the death of his father. At the end of World War II he broke precedent by speaking on radio to announce Japan’s surrender to the allied forces. After the war, he attempted to bring the Imperial family closer to the people by making public appearances and allowing his children to be photographed. In 1959, his son the Crown Prince Akihito married a commoner breaking a 1500 year tradition. In 1971, he became the first reigning Japanese emperor to travel overseas. Hirohito died on 7 Jan 1989.

Achmed Sukarno, Surabaja, Java

Statemans, Indonesian statesman and first president of Indonesia (1945-66). He formed the Indonesia National Party in 1927, was imprisoned by the Dutch in 1929-31 and lived in exile until 1942, when he was made leader during the Japanese occupation. ((Achernar with Jupiter) He became president when Indonesia was granted independence in 1945. His popularity waned as the country suffered increasing internal chaos and poverty, while his government laid themselves open to charges of corruption. His powers gradually devolved onto General Suharto. He retired in 1968.

Hendrik Verwoerd, Amsterdam, Netherlands

Politician, South African professor, editor and statesman who as prime minister (1958-66) rigorously applied a policy of apartheid. When Verwoerd was three months old his family migrated to South Africa. A brilliant scholar at the University of Stellenbosch, he was appointed professor of applied psychology there in 1927. [Ed: Mars in paran with Sirius in the early part of his life, shows his brilliance as a scholar]. In 1933 he changed to the chair of sociology and social work. Verwoerd became prominent in politics in 1937, when he was appointed editor of the new Nationalist daily, Die Transvaler, in Johannesburg. He held that post until the Nationalists won the 1948 election, when he was appointed a senator. Becoming minister of native affairs in 1950, he was responsible for much of the apartheid legislation. In the election of 1958 he won a seat in the House of Assembly, and, after the death of Prime Minister Johannes Gerhardus Strijdom, he was selected his successor in September 1958. Once he was in office, Verwoerd’s program for apartheid was applied in full, with an intricate system of laws separating whites, Cape Coloureds, Asians, and Africans (blacks). He pushed through the Promotion of Bantu Self-Government Act in 1959; it provided for the resettlement of blacks in eight separate reservations, or Bantu Homelands. These racial policies provoked demonstrations by blacks, which on one occasion–March 1960 at Sharpeville–led to bloodshed. On Oct. 5, 1960, white voters by a small majority approved his recommendation that South Africa leave the Commonwealth, and Verwoerd’s dream of a republic came true on May 31, 1961. On April 9, 1960, a deranged white farmer shot Verwoerd in an assassination attempt that failed. Six years later on 6 Sep 1966, Verwoerd was stabbed to death in the parliamentary chamber by a temporary parliamentary messenger, Demetrio Tsafendas, a Mozambique immigrant of mixed racial descent.

Marian Anderson, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Opera Singer, After a Carnegie Hall recital (1929) she toured in Europe and the USSR, She became the first African-American singer at the New York Metropolitan Opera (1955). President Eisenhower made her a delegate to the UN in 1958 and she recieved many honours and international awards.{Ed: The honours and awards she received are a simple example of Regulus and Saladmeleck culminating in paran with her Sun].

Gladys Aylward, London, United Kingdom

Missionary, In 1930, aged 28, she spent her entire savings on a railway ticket to Tientsin in North China. With a Scottish missionary, Mrs Jeannie Lawson, the pair founded an inn, the famous Inn of the Sixth Happiness. From there in 1938, she trekked across the mountains leading over 100 children to safety when the war with Japan brought fighting to the area (Aculeus with her Mars). She returned to England in 1948, preaching for five years, then in 1953 settled in Taiwan as head of an orphanage. She died in 1970. [Ed In many ways her life with children and helping others is a symbol of Alhena in paran with her Moon and Dubhe in paran with her Mars.]

Richard Rodgers, New York, New York

Composer, Together with Oscar Hammerstein and Lorenz Hart, one of the dominant composers of modern musical comedy. He entered Columbia University in 1918, and collaborated as a freshman in composing music for the varsity show. He left after his first year to work full time in musical theatre as a composer and went on to study composition at the Juilliard School of Music. He started his collaboration with Lorenz Hart in 1925 and ended with Hart’s death in 1942. He then started working with Oscar Hammerstein and their collaboration included hits such as Oklahoma! (1943), Carousel (1945), South Pacific (1949), The King & I (1951), Flower Drum Song (1958), and The Sound of Music (1959). He died on 30 Dec 1979.

Leni Riefenstahl, Berlin, Berlin, Germany

Film Maker, Riefenstahl is best known for her documentary films of the Nazi movement. She studied art and ballet and, between 1923-26, featured in a dance program across Europe. She then gravitated to the emerging film industry, first as an actress and then as a director. By 1931, she had formed her own production company. Supported by the Nazi party, she made films extolling the virtues of Aryan superiority. Her films included: Victory of Faith, 1933; Triumph of the Will, 1935; and Olympia, 1938. The last being a film of the 1936 Berlin Olympic Games. After World War II, Riefenstahl was blacklisted because of her support of the Nazis. [Ed: Leni was a brilliant documentary filmmaker whose entire career suffered because she made documentaries on the glory of Germany under the rule of the Nazis. This is the expression of Menkar in paran with her sun and Schedar with her Venus. In addition, Procyon with her Mars will bring her many ups and downs]. She was cleared of complicity and war crimes in 1952. but could never go back to movies, thus she went on to become a highly successful photographer and at the age of 75 she took up scuba diving so that she could film underwater. She stated that underwater she could still carry the heavy cameras as they had no weight in that environment. Her underwater photography receive acclaim and she continued this active line of work well into her nineties.

Ray Kroc, Chicago, Illinois

Restaurateur, Kroc is best known as the founder of the fast-food industry and the McDonald’s chain of restaurants. At 15, he served as an ambulance driver in World War I and returned to the US where he undertook a variety of jobs. In 1954, he was a distrbutor of a multi shake mixer and while visiting a client, the McDonald brothers, he observed the assembly line format they used to prepare and sell a large volume of hamburgers, fries and milk shakes. He decided to set up a chain of restaurants based on this and agreed to pay the brothers a percentage of receipts. The first McDonald’s restaurant opened on 15 April 1955. He instituted a training program to automate and standardise production and bought out the McDonald’s brothers in 1961. [Ed: his entrepreneurial skills and determination are shown by Polaris in paran with his Jupiter]. He served on the board until his death on 14 Jan 1984.

Jaya Prakash Narayan, Sitadiara, India Bihar

Political leader and theorist, Narayan was educated at universities in the USA where he became a Marxist. Upon his return to India in 1929 he joined the Congress Party and in 1932 he was sentenced to a year’s imprisonment for participation in the civil disobedience movement against British rule in India. [Ed: Toliman in paran with his Venus]. Upon his release he became the leader of a left wing movement within the Congress Party where he advocated a more militant policy should be adopted. In 1948 he left the Congress Party and formed the Praja Socialist Party. However, by 1954 unhappy with party politics he announced he would hence forth devote his life to the Bhoodan Yajna movement which demanded that land be distributed among the landless. He was one of Indira Gandhi strongest critics (Acrux with his Mercury) and in 1974 she jailed him and other opposition leaders. He was released after five months with failing health and when Indira Gandhi was defeated in 1977 he was consulted by the victorious Janata party as to its choice of leaders. He died in 1979.

Joaquin Rodrigo, Sagunto, Spain

Composer, Rodrigo was one of the leading composers of his day and known for his most famous piece ‘Concierto de Aranjuez’. He was blind from the age of three but began to study music at an early age. The first performance of the ‘Concierto de Aranjuez’ was made in 1940 and established him as a composer of repute.

Anais Nin, Nevilly L Eveque, France

Novelist, Anais Nin is best known for her diaries as well as her novels and short stories. She went to live in New York city in 1914 with her mother and there published her work. Although she did not win much literary acclaim, her work was nevertheless much admired. The publication of the first volume of her diaries in 1966 won her recognition as a writer. She was a figure of controversy and contradiction as her writing was seen to be both important yet narcissism and indulgent.[Ed An interesting expression of Mirach with her Mars]. The published ‘Delta of Venus:Erotica’ (1977) is credited to have contributed to revealing a new dimension of female sensuality. Nin died on 14 Jan 1977.

Benjamin Spock, New Haven, Connecticut

Physician, Author, American paediatrician whose books on child rearing, especially his Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care (1946; 6th ed., 1992), influenced generations of parents; translated into some 30 languages, it sold tens of millions of copies. [Ed: Ankaa in paran with his Moon describes his desire to transform parenting issues, but Procyon in paran to his Moon show that his ideas have not lasted.] The book, urging parental understanding and flexibility, made his name a household word. [Ed: Zuben Elgenubi with his Moon showed his desire to help the raising of children]. Spock received his medical degree in 1929 from Columbia University’s College of Physicians and Surgeons and trained for six years at the New York Psychoanalytic Institute. He practiced paediatrics in New York City and taught psychiatry and child development at various universities, including Western Reserve, Cleveland (1955-67), from which he resigned in order to devote himself more fully to the antiwar movement. Spock’s bitter opposition to U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War during the 1960s led to his trial and conviction (1968) for counselling draft evasion–a conviction overturned on appeal. In 1972 he was the presidential candidate of the pacifist People’s Party.

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Arthur Vineberg, Montréal, Canada

Surgeon, Canadian heart surgeon, noted chiefly for his development, in 1950, of a surgical procedure for correction of impaired coronary circulation.

The ‘Vineberg procedure’ involved implanting the left internal mammary artery into the heart wall. Later he combined this procedure with transferring fatty tissue from around the intestines to around the heart. Vineberg received his M.S. degree (1928) and his Ph.D. (1933) in physiology from McGill University, Montreal. He wrote How to Live with Your Heart: The Family Guide to Heart Health (1975) and, with Lorene Freeman, Myocardial Revascularization by Arterial/Ventricular Implants (1982). (Ed: The strength and confidence to explore new ideas in surgery can be seen in Alderamin in paran with his Mercury). He died on 26. March 1988.

Peter Arno, New York, New York

Composer, He most famous song written in 1931 was ‘Here Comes the Bride’ but be also contributed to the New Yorker magazine with satirical drawings of New York cafe society. He died in 1968.

Johnny Weismuller, Timisoara, Romania

Swimmer, Movie Star, American freestyle swimmer of the 1920s who won five Olympic gold medals and set 67 world records. He became even more famous as a motion-picture actor, most notably in the role of Tarzan, a ‘noble savage’ who had been abandoned in a jungle as an infant and was reared by apes. [Ed: Deneb adige (the Sharman or Hero’s star) in paran with his Moon is nicely expressed as his famous role as the noble savage and Mirach with his Venus gave him the body for the role].

Weissmuller, whose parents immigrated to the United States when he was three, attended school only through the eighth grade but was trained in swimming at the Illinois Athletic Club in Chicago. He was a member of several championship relay and water-polo teams that represented the club during the 1920s.. At the 1924 Olympic Games he won three gold medals, for the 100-metre and 400-metre freestyle and the 800-metre relay (he also won a bronze medal as a member of the U.S. water-polo team); in 1928 he won two more gold medals, for the 100-metre freestyle and 800-metre relay. Despite his athletic records, Weissmuller is best known for his motion-picture role as Tarzan of the Apes, a character created by Edgar Rice Burroughs. Weissmuller starred in 12 Tarzan films between 1932 and 1948, beginning with Tarzan the Ape Man (1932). He later created the role of Jungle Jim, a guide, for both television and motion pictures. His autobiography, Water, World, and Weissmuller, appeared in 1967. [Ed: With Betelgeuse in paran with his Sun and influencing his later life his success continued well after his Olympic achievements]. He died 20 Jan 1984.

Jean-Rene Lacoste, Paris, France

Tennis player, Businessman, Lacoste was a leading tennis player of the 1920’s and together with three others, were collectively known as ‘The Four Musketters’ who helped France win its first Davis Cup. He was nicknamed ‘the crocodile’ and won Wimbledon in 1925 and 1928. He retired in 1929 and set up a sportswear company (Lacoste) with the crocodile as its motif.

Ayn Rand, Saint Petersburg, Russia

Writer, Rand’s work is noted for presenting her philosophy of objectivism which emphasises that all real achievement is the product of individual ability and effort. [Ed: A lovely expression of her Saturn in paran with Deneb Algedi, the ancient law-giver and alpha star of Capricorn and Facies in paran with her Jupiter]. She was also known for espousing the virtue of selfishness which she saw as important in realising individual potential. She went to the USA in 1924 where she worked as a scriptwriter in Hollywoood. She became a citizen in 1931 and published her first best selling novel ‘The Fountainhead’ in 1934. A second best seller ‘Atlas Shrugged’ followed in 1957. She also published several non-fiction works and edited several journals expounding her ideas. She died on 6 March 1982.

Robert Penn Warren, Guthrie, Kentucky

Novelist, Poet,American novelist, poet, critic, and teacher, best-known for his treatment of moral dilemmas in a South beset by the erosion of its traditional, rural values. He became the first poet laureate of the United States in 1986. In 1921 Warren entered Vanderbilt University where he joined a group of poets who called themselves the Fugitives (q.v.). After graduation in 1925, he studied at the University of California, Berkeley (M.A., 1927), and at Yale. He then went to the University of Oxford as a Rhodes scholar. From 1930 to 1950 he served on the faculty of several colleges and universities–including Vanderbilt and the University of Minnesota. With Cleanth Brooks and Charles W. Pipkin, he founded and edited The Southern Review (1935-42), possibly the most influential American literary magazine of the time.

Warren’s first novel, Night Rider (1939), is based on the tobacco war (1905-08) between the independent growers in Kentucky and the large tobacco companies. It anticipates much of his later fiction in the way it treats a historical event with tragic irony, emphasizes violence, and portrays individuals caught in moral quandaries. His best-known novel, All the King’s Men (1946), is based on the career of the Louisiana demagogue Huey Long and tells the story of an idealistic politician whose lust for power corrupts him and those around him. This novel won the Pulitzer Prize in 1947 and, when made into a film, won the Academy Award for best motion picture of 1949. His long narrative poem, Brother to Dragons (1953), dealing with the brutal murder of a slave by two nephews of Thomas Jefferson, is essentially a versified novel, and his poetry generally exhibits many of the concerns of his fiction. Besides receiving the Pulitzer Prize for fiction, Warren twice won the Pulitzer Prize for poetry (1958, 1979) and, at the time of his selection as poet laureate in 1986, was the only person ever to win the prize in both categories. In his later years he tended to concentrate on his poetry. He died on 15 Sept 1989, Stratton.

Clyde Tombaugh, Streator, Illinois

Astronomer, US astronomer who discovered the planet Pluto. He made the discovery in 1930 after a detailed search of the heavens based on the predictions of other astronomers (Al Rescha with his Venus). His work also included the discovery of several clusters of stars and galaxies, the distribution of extragalactic nebulae as well as observations of the surfaces of the Moon, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. He was the author of several published works including The Search for Small Natural Earth Satellites (1959), Lectures in Aerospace Medicine (1960), and Out of Darkness: the Planet Pluto (1980) co written with Patrick Moore.

Oleg Antonov, Moscow, Russia

Aircraft Designer, By 1946 he had become head of the experimental design department in the Leningrad Polytechnic Institute. He received the Lenin Prize in 1962 and the Order of Lenin twice. He was the author of over 50 books on glider and aircraft design and his name is peretuated in the AN-225 six-engine super heavy left aircraft that carried the Soviet shuttle orbiter ‘Buran’ above it fuselage, shown at the Paris Airshow in 1989. He died in 1984.

Bugsy Siegel, Brooklyn, New York

Gangster, Siegel was a gangster and US crime boss who initially developed Las Vegas as a gambling Mecca. Raised in New York, he was involved in crime early in life, extorting money from peddlers on the lower east side. He teamed up with Meyer Lansky and together they ran bootlegging and gambling operations. He was sent to the West Coast in 1937 to develop opportunities for the crime syndicates. There he expanded the gambling rackets to include off shore gambling on ships outside the 12-mile limit as well as narcotic smuggling. In 1945 he realised the dream of establishing a gambling Mecca in the desert [Ed an interesting expression of Alkes and Saulocin with his Jupiter]. However, his taste for high living caused his downfall. Skimming money from the casino project he had undertaken and, passing bad cheques angered his crime partners and he was killed on 20 June 1947.

Josephine Baker, Saint Louis, Missouri

Dancer, Singer, As a child Baker developed the taste for the flamboyant that was later to make her famous. As an adolescent she became a dancer, touring at 16 with a dance troupe from Philadelphia. In 1925 she went to Paris to dance at the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées in La Revue nègre and introduced her danse sauvage to France. She went on to become one of the most popular music-hall entertainers in France and achieved star billing at the Folies-Bergère, where she created a sensation by dancing seminude in a skirt made only of bananas. During the German occupation of France, Baker worked with the Red Cross and the Résistance, and as a member of the Free French forces she entertained troops in Africa and the Middle East. She was later awarded the Croix de Guerre and the Legion of Honour with the rosette of the Résistance. After the war much of her energy was devoted to Les Milandes, her estate in south-western France, from which she began in 1950 to adopt babies of all nationalities in the cause of what she defined as ‘an experiment in brotherhood’ and her ‘rainbow tribe.’ She travelled several times to the United States during the 1960s to participate in civil-rights demonstrations, and she continued to perform occasionally until her death in 1975.

Charles Revson, New York, New York

Cosmetic Manufacturer, Charles Revson founded the Revlon cosmetics empire with $300 into a multinational company worth millions. He worked as a salesman for a cosmetics firm but resigned when he was passed over for promotion in 1932. At the height of the Great Depression, he joined with his two brothers and founded Revlon. They produced nail polish in a variety of colours and shades no available before. He aimed sales at beauty salons and later at department stores and drug stores. Revson believed in advertising and gave his products exotic names such as ‘Moon Drops’ and ‘Ultima II’. He was also the first to develop matching lipstick and nail polish in shades to match seasonal colours. [Ed: Mirach, the star of beauty and harmony, in paran with his Sun played a strong part in his life’s work as well as Saladmelek with his Venus, giving him a good eye for colour]. He diversified the company into the pharmaceutical industry by the mid 1960’s. Revson died on 24 August 1975.

Katharine Hepburn, Hartford, Connecticut

Actress, Hepburn was the only star to have won four Academy Awards for Best Actress. [Sualocin culminating in paran with her Moon shows her talent and her popularity]. She arrived in Hollywood (from Broadway) and enchanted the film executives with a cavalier attitude and a surprising arrogance by calling the shots. She first appeared on screen with ‘A Bill of Divorcement’ (1932) and towards the late Thirties, she was considered box-office poison, as audiences objected to her independence and superior air. Both ‘The Philadelphia Story’ (December 1940) and The African Queen (February 1952) resurrected her career. She met Spencer Tracy in 1942 and began a discreet affair until his death in 1967. She won her fourth Oscar for ‘On Golden Pond’ (released November 1981). {Ed: Hepburn has many interesting stars but her natural charm can be linked to Castor in paran with her Venus].

Simone de Beauvoir, Paris, France

Novelist, De Beauvoir is known for her treatise ‘The Second Sex’ in which she advocated equality for women and which became a fundamental classic of feminist literature. Educated privately, she attended the Sorbonne and there met Jean Paul Sartre and began a life long partnership. She travelled extensively and her writing explored a variety of themes that included freedom versus responsibility, the relationship of conscience to the ‘other’, as well as existentialist themes. Most of her writing supported her belief that an individual’s options are based on equality rather than on their sexuality.

Salvador Allende, Valparaiso, Chile

Leader, Statesman, Allende helped found the Chilean Socialist Party, and was elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 1937. He served as minister of health for three years and was a senator (1945-70). He won the presidency in 1970. He tried to build a Socialist society within the framework of a parliamentary democracy, but met widespread opposition from business interests. {Ed: Canopus in paran with Venus shows his strong political ideas that are not flexible]. He was overthrown by a military junta and died in the fighting.

Kingsley Davis, Tuxedo, Texas

Sociologist, Davis was the first to coin the terms ‘population explosion’ and ‘zero population growth’. His work led him to develop theories on demographics which are today used as important analytical tools in the area of social planning.

Arthur Adamov, Kislovodsk, Russia

Playwright, His family lost their fortune in 1917, and moved to France where he was educated and met Surrealist artists. His early absurdist plays presented the dislocations and cruelties of a meaningless world. ‘Ping Pong’ sees humanity reduced to mechanism. His later plays show a transition of a concept of commitment.

U Thant, Pantanaw, Burma

Diplomat, Burmese academic, public servant and third General Secretary of the UN. U Thant was a devout Buddhist and pacifist who was critical of both the US and Russia for their actions which threatened world peace. [Ed: Toliman in paran with Saturn]. He became Burma’s permanent representative to the UN in 1957. (Acrux with Saturn) When the US and Russia failed to agree on a permanent successor to Dag Hammerskjold, who resigned as Secretary General in 1961, U Thant was selected as the compromise candidate on an acting basis. [Diadem with his Venus allowing him to appear a non-threatening choice]. He was permanently elected to the position in November 1962 and re-elected in December 1966. U Thant died on 25 Nov 1974 and when his body was returned to Burma, students abducted the body on 5 December and buried it. Retaliatory police action on 11 December saw the body retrieved. The body was later buried privately in a sealed tomb. These actions led to rioting and an eventual declaration of martial law.

Simone Weil, Paris, France

Mystic, French mystic, social philosopher, and activist in the French Resistance during World War II, whose posthumously published works had particular influence on French and English social thought. Weil expressed social awareness at an early age. At five she refused sugar because the French soldiers at the front during World War I had none, and at six she was quoting the French dramatic poet Jean Racine (1639-99). In addition to studies in philosophy, classical philology, and science, Weil continued to embark on new learning projects as the need arose.[Ed: Vindemaitrix with Mars giving her a thurst for knowledge]. She taught philosophy in several girls’ schools from 1931 to 1938 and often became embroiled in conflicts with school boards as a result of her social activism. To learn the psychological effects of heavy industrial labour, she took a job in 1934-35 in an auto factory, where she observed the spiritually deadening effect of machines on her fellow workers. In 1936 she joined an Anarchist unit near Zaragoza, Spain, training for action in the Spanish Civil War, but after an accident in which she was badly scalded by boiling oil, she went to Portugal to recuperate. Soon thereafter Weil had the first of several mystical experiences, and she subsequently came to view her social concerns as ‘ersatz Divinity.’ After the German occupation of Paris during World War II, Weil moved to the south of France, where she worked as a farm servant. She escaped to the United States in 1942 but then went to London to work with the French Resistance. To identify herself with her French compatriots under German occupation, Weil refused to eat more than the official ration in occupied France. Malnutrition and overwork led to a physical collapse, and during her hospitalisation she was found to have tuberculosis. She died after a few months spent in a sanatorium on 24 Aug. 24, 1943 . A moral idealist committed to a vision of social justice, Weil in her writings explored her own religious life while also analysing the individual’s relation with the state and God, the spiritual shortcomings of modern industrial society, and the horrors of totalitarianism. [A interesting expression of Antares in paran with her Sun]

Nelson Algren, Detroit, Michigan

Novelist, Algren was a leading member of the Chicago School of Realism, producing a series of uncompromising powerful novels, these included ‘The Man with the Golden Arm’ (1949) a novel about drug addiction regraded by some as his best work.

Sir Robert Helpmann, Mount Gambier, Australia

Choreographer, Ballet dancer, actor, choreographer and producer.

Robert Helpmann was performing from the age of 11. He studied ballet with the touring Pavlova company in 1926, and first appeared professionally in 1927. He was a leading male dancer and partner of prima ballerina Margot Fonteyn in the 1940s. He was also the leading male dancer with Sadler’s Wells Ballet in London from 1933-50, and later the director of Australian Ballet. In 1932 he moved to London and joined the Sadler’s Wells ballet company. In 1963 he return to Australia where he served jointly (with Dame Peggy Van Praagh) as director of the Australian Ballet. Knighted by Queen Elizabeth in 1968. As a choreographer, he created ballets that were strongly theatrical and often contained elements of violence. He resigned in 1976 and died on the 28th December, 1986. He was renown for his outspoken and leading edge thinking in the world of dance and design [Ed: Canopus in paran with his Mercury indicating his strong veiws on dance].

Edwin Land, Bridgeport, Connecticut

Inventor, Physicist, Land is best known for his application of polarised light to the development of photographic film. He became interested in light while at Harvard and in 1932 as a result of experiments, he succeeded in producing what he called the ‘polaroid sheet’. Together with an instructor from Harvard he set up a company and began to use the Polaroid material in sunglasses and other optical products such as camera lenses and filters. In 1937 he founded the Polaroid Corporation and four years later developed a three dimensional motion picture process. During World War II he applied the polarizing principle to a variety of products which included infra red filters and sights for weapons as well as night sight goggles. In 1947 he brought out the Polaroid Land camera which produced a photgraphic print in sixty seconds. In 1960 he established the Rowland Foundation which funded research work on in the fields of light and colour research.

Virginia Apgar, Westfield, New Jersey

Physician, Apgar is known for her pioneering work in anaesthesia relating to childbirth, in 1952 she developed the Apgar Score to evaluate newborns. She also created the first department of anaesthesiology at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center (1938 – 49) where she was the first woman both to head a department and to hold a full professorship in anaesthesiology (1949). She had a deepening interest in maternal and child health which eventually led in 1959 at aged 50, to an executive position with the National Foundation-March of Dimes, where she spent the rest of her life fostering public support for birth defect research. She died in 1974.

Errol Flynn, Hobart TAS, Australia

Actor, Errol Flynn is best known as the dashing hero of adventure films of the 1930’s and 40’s. He spent his youth in New Guinea propsecting for gold, sailing his yacht and writing a regular column for the Sydey ‘Bulletin’. He went to Hollywood in 1935 and achieved instant fame when he was chosen at the last minute to replace Robert Donat in ‘Captain Blood’. Flynn then went on to make a number of films but his popularity suffered when he was accused of statutory rape in 1942. Although acquitted, it was not until 1957 when his reputation was reestablished. Flynn had problems with alcoholism and died on 14 Oct 1959.

Data Source: Data Source: The Steinbrecher Astrological Data Collection. DCD quotes him to mutual friend: T.P. Davis, MH 4082X. Reference – Data: US Astrologer Ed Steinbrecher Reference – Biography: Esoteric Technologies P/L RR:A

Michael Todd, Minneapolis, Minnesota

Showman, Producer, He was a flamboyant showman whose single picture ‘Around the World in 80 Days’ and his marriage to Elizabeth Taylor are his claims to fame. He established his reputation as a showman at the Chicago exhibition of 1933 where he appeared in a dance revue. He went on to produced and co-write a number of Broadway revues. During the early 1950’s, developed a 3-D film technique called Todd-AO. In Oct 1956, Around the World in 80 Days opened and that year won the Academy Award for Best Picture. He married Elizabeth Taylor in 1957 and on 22 March 1958, he was killed in an airplane crash together with his scriptwriter, Art Cohn.

James Agee, Knoxville, Tennessee

Novelist, poet, screen writer, He studied at Harvard, and worked for several magazines before being commissioned to rove the Southern stares with the photographer Walker Evans. His most famous film script is ‘The African Queen’ (1951) and his only novel ‘ A Death in the Family’ (1957) was awarded a posthumous Pulitzer Prize.

Joy Adamson, Opava, Czech Republic

Naturalist, Writer, Living in Kenya with her husband she studied and painted wildlife (Acubens in paran with her Mercury) and made her name with a series of books about the lioness ‘Elsa: Born Free’ (1960) at age 50 years and other books in 1962, and 1965 about the lioness. She was murdered in her home by tribesmen in 1980.

Akira Kurosawa, Tokyo, Japan

Film Maker, Kurosawa is the first Japanese director to gain international recognition. He attended art school but left in 1936 and became an assitant director. He made his first feature in 1943 and the second in 1944. The third was due for release in 1945 but was not seen until 1952 due to the occupational forces’ prohibition on material celebrating Japan’s feudal past. His film ‘Rashomon’ was screened at the Venice Film Festival in 1951 where it was awarded the Grand Prix and was the first time a Japanese film had won international acclaim. His greatest commercial success was ‘Seven Samurai’. He was also successful in taking Western stories and adapting them to a Japanese setting.

John Robinson Pierce, Des Moines, Iowa

Communications Engineer, Pierce is known as the father of the communications satellite. He began working for Bell Telephone in 1936 and by 1952, having been responsible for a number of improvements, he became director of electronics research. Two years later he began to work on the theory of using satrellites to relay radio communicatrions to all parts of the earth. Largely ignored, he saw his opoprtunity when NASA started to use the Echo balloon satellite to study space phenomenon. He convinced NASA to aluminise the sphere and make it into a radio-wave reflector. Echo I was launched on 12 Aug 1960 and the success of the experiment provided the impetus to develop the technology to design a satellite capable of amplifying signals from one part of the Earth to the other. This led to the beginning of efficient worldwide communication via television and radio.

Jean Genet, Paris, France

Author, Social Outcast, Genet is known for transforming the erotic and obscene into poetical and dramatic works. He was abandoned as a child by his mother and he was raised by a family of peasants. At the age of 10 he was caught stealing and spent his adolescence in a reformatory. He later lived the life of a tramp, pickpocket, prostitute in various cities including Paris, Antwerp and Barcelona. He began writing in 1942 and drew on his experiences. His first novel was published in 1949 wherein he described the demi-monde of Montmartre with its pimps, prostitutes and thugs. In 1947 he was again convicted of burglary and sentenced to perpetual detention. However, the actions of a group of writers including Sartre, Cocteau and de Beuvoir, gained him a presidential pardon. He was an extreme form of rebel and anarchist and rejected all forms of social discipline or commitment. His dramatic works were designed to shock audiences using religious, political and racial prejudices. This established him as an outstanding figure in the Theatre of the Absurd.

Josef Mengele, Gunzburg, Germany

Doctor, Also known as the ‘Angel of Death’ as he was responsible for medical experimentation on inmates at Auschwitz. He studied in Munich in the 1920’s and completed a medical degree. He joined the Nazi party in 1934 and was assigned to the Institute for Hereditary Biology & Racial Hygiene. In 1943, he was appointed chief doctor of Auschwitz where he supervised medical experiments on inmates. [Ed: His life shows the worst side of Schedar with Mars, the blind devotion to what is considered a noble cause]. After the war, he escaped to South America and it is believed he died in 1979 under an assumed identity.

Ginger Rogers, Independence, Missouri

Dancer, Actress, Rogers fame rests on her partnership with Fred Astaire in a number of film musicals. Her dancing and acting career started in vaudeville and she made her Broadway debut in 1929. She then went on to Hollywood to work in films. Her first part opposite Fred Astaire was in 1933 in ‘Flying Down to Rio’. So popular was it, that they made nine other films. (Acubens in paran with Jupiter) Rogers enjoyed dancing but was also a dramatic actress, winning an Oscar for her role in ‘Kitty Foyle’ in 1940. She returned to the Broadway stage in 1965 in the role of Dolly Levi in ‘Hello Dolly!’ and then in 19169 she took the role of Auntie Mame in ‘Mame’ in London.

Emile Allais, Megeve, France

Sportsman, One of the great French ski champions who at the age of 25 broke the Austrian-Swiss monopoly of the international circuit by winning both the downhill and slalom championships of the Federation Internationale de Ski. He also helped developed new techniques in slalom racing. He later founded schools in skiing in North America as well as Chile.[Ed: Altair in paran with his Moon describes his love of this fast sport]

John Amery, London, United Kingdom

Traitor, Amery was a British born pro-Nazis adventurer. He was the son of L.S. Amery, (later disowned).[Ed: Alpheratz in paran with his Moon giving him an emotional freedom from his culture’s values] He was recruited by the Nazis in France, and began pro-Hitler broadcasts form Berlin in 1942. He tried to raise an anti-Bolshevik free corps in the British internee camp at St Denis to fight for the Nazis on the Russian front (1943) and made speeches for Hitler in Norway, France, Belgium and Yugoslavia (1944). He was captured by Italian partisans in 1945, and tried in London for high treason. He was hanged in December 1945.

Hanna Reitsch, Hirschberg, Thuringen, Germany

Aviator, Reitsch was the leading female German pilot in the 20th century. She trained in the 1930’s and became the first German woman to earn a captain’s licence, first female helicopter pilot and the first female test pilot. During World War II, she served as test pilot and did everything except fly the missions. She was also the first German woman to be awarded the Iron Cross in 1942. She was assigned to a suicide mission at the end of the war and was one of the last people to see Hitler alive in his underground bunker. She flew the last plane out of Berlin and was captured. Her testimony after the war confirmed the disintegration of Hitler’s personalilty at the time. She continued to set records for powered and motorless flight and died on 24 Aug 1979. [Ed: Scheat in paran with her Venus shows her independent attitude to social customs and her little regrad for society’s expectations of the role of a woman]

Ralph Baldwin, Grand Rapids, Michigan

Geologist, astrophysicist, Balwin is renown for his work in charting the Moon’s surface. He wrote ‘The Face of the Moon’ in 1949 where he presented such an extensive array of evidence about lunar and terrestrial craters that it persuaded the majority of scientists that lunar craters were created by meteoritic impact rather than by volcanic eruption, as many scientists had believed. His later books are particularly noted for their syntheses of all aspects of the history of the Moon. [Ed: A nice expression of Antares in paran with his Mars in his latter years]

Enoch Powell,Birmingham, United Kingdom

Politician, Powell is best remembered for his racist views on immigration. He was educated at Cambridge and served as a professor at the University of Sydney in 1937 and served in the British army during World War II. He won a seat in Parliament in 1950 as a Conservative and became a Minister of Health. He challenged Edward Heath unsuccessfully for the party leadership in 1965 and 1968. His speech ‘Rivers of Blood’ first evoked the British race question. He charged that immigrants from former British colonies such as India, Pakistan, South Africa and the West Indies would provoke a race war. As a result of this speech, he was ejected from Parliament and gave up his seat in 1974. He returned to Parliament as a member for a Protestant Northen Ireland seat.

Alan Turing, London, England

The Code Book – Simon Singh Fo,1, Code Breaker, Alan Turing was the main person behind cracking the German Enigma code machines of WWII. From the age of 15 months, his parents returned to India leaving him in London in the care of friends and nannies. As soon as he was old enough he was sent to boarding school. He was a shy, awkward boy who devoted himself to his studies. He formed a deep friendship with another boy, who tragically died just before they were due to enter university. Turing, having lost the only person he every loved, he poured his energy into the study of mathematics and entered King’s College Cambridge. At Cambridge, while only in his early twenties, he published a paper in which he described an imaginary machine that was designed to preform a particular mathematical operation, or algorithm, in other words the modern computer. These machines were called Turing Machines.

At the outbreak of WWII he was recruited by the British to work in their code-breaking department. At that stage of the war the German Enigma code was unbreakable. However, Turing worked exclusively on this problem and by 1941 had not only developed a method of breaking the code, but also designed electronic machines, called bombes, to aid in the daily need for decoding the German messages. As a result of Turing’s work the British command had access to most of the German intelligence, which proved to be a deciding influence in the Battle of Britain, and the navel battles in the Pacific.

After the war the British did not reveal that they had broken the Engima code and encouraged the commonwealth countries to use the captured German Enigma machines, which enabled the British to spy on all the commonwealth countries. Turing, because of the need for secrecy, received no recognition for his work. By the early 1950s he was being persecuted for his homosexuality, and after hormone treatment to try and change his sexual needs, he committed suicide on the morning of 7th June, 1954.

Raoul Wallenberg, Stockholm, Sweden

Businessman, Diplomat, Swedish businessman and diplomat who became a legendary figure through his efforts to rescue Hungarian Jews during World War II and through his disappearance while a prisoner in the Soviet Union. [Vega in paran with his Moon shows his care and concern for others]. Wallenberg studied architecture and in 1936 became the foreign representative of a central European trading company, whose president was a Hungarian Jew. After the Nazis sent troops and SS units into Hungary in March 1944 to round up ‘subversives’ and Jews, Wallenberg, with the help of U.S. and Swedish Jewish and refugee organizations, persuaded the Swedish Foreign Ministry to send him to Budapest on a diplomatic passport (July 9, 1944). There, several thousand Jews (diversely estimated at from 4,000 to 35,000) were enlisted and sheltered by Wallenberg in ‘protected houses’ flying the flags of Sweden and other neutral countries. Wallenberg also dogged the Germans at deportation trains and on ‘death marches,’ distributing food and clothing to the Jewish prisoners and trying to rescue some of them with papers and money for their passage out of the country. He was more than once threatened by Adolf Eichmann. Soon after Soviet troops reached Budapest, Wallenberg on Jan. 17, 1945, reported to the occupying authority but was forthwith arrested for espionage–his money, radio, and dubious diplomatic status making him suspect. According to Swedish authorities, the Soviets later privately admitted that his arrest had been a mistake, during a confused period at war’s end, but that their only information was that Wallenberg had died of a heart attack in a Moscow prison cell in 1947. There were a number of unconfirmed reports from freed Soviet prisoners, however, that he had since been seen alive in prison, notably in 1951, 1959, and 1975. On Sept. 22, 1981, the U.S. Congress granted honorary citizenship to the missing Wallenberg. (Such honorary citizenship had been granted only once before, to Sir Winston Churchill.). It is thought he died on 17 July1947.

Henry Armstrong, Columbus, Mississippi

Boxer, Armstrong is the only man to have held three world titles at different weights simultaneously. (Ed: Aldebaran in paran to his Mars giving him success in a maritian field). He won the featherweight title in 1937 and in the following year he added both the welterweight and the lightweight crowns. He successfully defended his welterweight title a record 20 times. He retired from the ring in 1945 and died 1988.

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Phillip Abelson, Tacoma, Washington

Physical Chemist, In 1940 he assisted Edwin Mattison McMillan to bombard uranium with neutrons, which led to the discovery of a new element, neptunium. >From 1941 he worked on the Manhattan atomic bomb project, developing diffusion methods of the obtaining enriched uranium-235; this was the fuel for the first A-bomb.

Dai Bao, Sai-Gon, Vietnam

Emperor, The son of Emperor Khai Dinh, a vassal of the French colonial regime, Boa Dai was the last emperor of Vietnam. He succeeded to the throne in 1926 and assumed the title Bao Dai (‘Keeper of Greatness’). He initially sought to reform and modernize Vietnam but was unable to win French cooperation.

During World War II the French colonial regime exercised a firm control over Bao Dai until the Japanese coup de force of March 1945, which swept away French administration in Indochina. The Japanese considered bringing back the aging Prince Cuong De from Japan to head a new quasi-independent Vietnamese state, but they finally allowed Bao Dai to remain as an essentially powerless ruler. [Ed: Canopus in paran with his Saturn showing its worst side of restrictions and censorship on his leadership as well as Toliman with his Mars which shows his lack of understanding of the difficult nature of his position]. When the Viet Minh seized power in their revolution of August 1945, Ho Chi Minh and his colleagues judged that there was symbolic value to be gained by having Bao Dai linked to them. The Viet Minh asked Bao Dai to resign and offered him an advisory role as ‘Citizen Prince Nguyen Vinh Thuy.’ Finding that the Viet Minh accorded him no role, and distrustful of the French, Bao Dai fled to Hong Kong in 1946. There he led a largely frivolous life, making appeals against French rule.

In 1949 the French accepted the principle of an independent Vietnam but retained control of its defence and finance. Bao Dai agreed to return to Vietnam in these circumstances in May 1949, and in July he became temporary premier of a tenuously unified and nominally independent Vietnam (Achernar with the Moon). Reinstalled as sovereign, Bao Dai continued his pleasure-seeking ways and became generally known as the ‘Playboy Emperor.’ He left the affairs of state to his various pro-French Vietnamese appointees, until October 1955 when a national referendum called for the country to become a republic. Bao Dai retired and returned to France to live. His life could be summarised by Achernar on the Nadir with Mars.

Klaus Barbie, Bonn, Germany

Nazi Leader, Known as the Butcher of Lyon he was the head of the Gestapo in Lyon from 1942 to 1944 where he was responsible for the death of some 4,000 persons and deported of some 7,500 others.

Barbie was a member of the Hitler Youth and joined the SD (Sicherheitsdienst, or Security Service), a special branch of the SS (Schutzstaffel, the black-shirted, elite guard of the Nazi Party), in 1935. After German forces overran Western Europe in World War II, Barbie served in The Netherlands and then, in 1942, was made chief of Gestapo Department IV in Lyon. In this position he became especially active against French partisans, promoting the torture and execution of thousands of prisoners. He personally tortured prisoners whom he interrogated. Among the more specific charges against him were that he ordered the death of Resistance leader Jean Moulin and the deportation of 44 Jewish children (aged 3-13) and their five teachers, all of who later were delivered to the Auschwitz extermination camp.

After the war he was seized by American authorities, who recruited him (1947-51) for counterintelligence work and then spirited him and his family out of Germany to Bolivia (for which the U.S. government later officially apologized to France). He lived there as a businessman under the name Klaus Altmann from 1951 until he was extradited, having been tracked down in Bolivia in 1972. After long negotiations, the Bolivian government extradited him to France in February 1983 to stand trial. (He had twice been sentenced in absentia to death by a post-war French military tribunal.) In 1987 Barbie, who remained unrepentant and proud of his service to the Nazis, went on trial in Lyon and was convicted of ‘crimes against humanity,’ for which he was sentenced to life imprisonment. [Ed: His cruelty to these children is reflected in El Nath on his nadir was the Moon set].

John Arlott, Winchester, United Kingdom

Broadcaster, Journalist, Arlott worked as a police detective – 1934-45 – before joining the BBC, where as a cricket commentator on radio and television he became one of the country’s most recognizable broadcasting voices. He wrote numerous books on cricket and cricketers. He won the Sports Journalist of the Year Award in 1979 and was Sports Presenter of the Year in 1980. He was one of the great ‘voices’ of cricket. He died in 1991.

James Van Allen, Mount Pleasant, Iowa

Physicist, American physicist whose discovery of the Van Allen radiation belts, two zones of radiation encircling the Earth, brought about new understanding of cosmic radiation and its effects upon the Earth. Van Allen was a naval officer during World War II and helped develop the radio proximity fuse for naval artillery shells. In 1946 he was placed in charge of high altitude research at the Applied Physics Laboratory of Johns Hopkins University. He supervised the testing and use of captured German V-2 rockets for upper atmosphere exploration and assisted in the development of the Aerobee, one of the first rockets built for research purposes. He became professor of physics at the University of Iowa in 1951. He was one of the scientists who proposed a program of worldwide cooperation in research, the International Geophysical Year (IGY) of 1957-58. The instrumentation of the early Explorer satellites, part of the United States’ IGY program, was built by Van Allen and his associates. The information on cosmic radiation gathered by these satellites led to the discovery of the Van Allen radiation belts. He later participated in the development of numerous space probes built to study planetary and solar physics. He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1959 and became president of the American Geophysical Union in 1982.

Thor Heyerdahl, Larvik, Norway

Ethnologist, Heyerdahl is best known for his scientific expeditions to prove ancient transoceanic contacts between civillisations. [His naturalist, rather then scientific, approach to this problem is symbolised by his Jupiter in paran with Ras Algethi]. The Kon-Tiki voyage in 1947 was a primtive raft sailed from South America to various polynesian islands. The account was made into a film in 1950. In 1969, Heyerdahl together with a crew from various cultures crossed the Atlantic in a replica of an ancient Egyptian sailing craft and the expedition was the subject of a documentary in 1971. In 1977, a voyage along the Tigris river from Iraq to the Persian Gulf, across the Arabian Sea to Pakistan and then ending at the Red Sea sought to establish the possibility that ancient Sumerians might have used similar means to spread their culture through south and southwest Asia. Heyerdahl also wrote several works on his theories on how culture spread from one continent to another.

Dylan Thomas, Swansea, United Kingdom

Poet, writer, Welsh poet and writer known for his humorous, rhythmical and lilting writing style as well as his excessive drinking. Dylan received diction lessons in order to anglicise his Welsh accent. He started writing at an early age but did badly at school. He moved to London when he was 21 and his first book was published in 1934. He married in 1936 and over time, his drinking became heavier. With the help of friends, he purchased a cottage and returned to live in Wales in 1949 and where he wrote ‘Under Milkwood’. This was first presented in 1953. He had difficulties with money and came to hate it, and what he could earn or borrow, he squandered. He died of an alcoholic overdose on 9 Dec 1953. [Ed: Altair in paran with his Venus describes this bold artisan and El Nath with his Saturn shows his life as a battler]

Jonas Edward Salk, New York, New York

Physician, Medical Researcher, Salk is best known for developing the anti-polio vaccine. [Ed: Acubens culminating as his Sun was on the Nadir as well as Ras Algethi culminating as his Moon is rising combine in Salk’s chart to show the healer who helps children as well as a person who seeks the natural solutions to problems in health]. He received his medical degree in 1939 and in 1942 joined a group of researchers working on immunization against influenza. In 1947 he became an associate professor of bacteriology an started working on poliomyelitis. In 1952 he conducted the first field tests on children who had recovered from polio and in 1954 a mass field trial found that the vaccine reduced the incidence of polio. On 12 April 1955, the vaccine was released for use in the USA. In 1957 he was named professor of experimental medicine and in 1963 became a fellow of the institute for Biological Studies that later became known as the Salk Institute. He was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1977. [Ed: Capella on his nadir and in paran to his Moon is symbolised by this medal which was award for his work that freed children from the threat of polio].






Cornelius Warmedam, Long Beach, California

Athlete, American pole-vaulter, the first to attain 4.57 m (15 feet) and the last to set major records with a bamboo pole. Few other athletes have so dominated their sport: Warmerdam cleared 4.57 m and more on 43 occasions before any other person could perform the feat once. On April 13, 1940, at Berkeley, Calif., Warmerdam first achieved a vault of 4.57 m. Using a bamboo pole, he established a world outdoor record of 4.77 m on May 23, 1942, at Modesto, Calif. He won the U.S. pole-vault title continuously from 1937 to 1944, except in 1939. If not for World War II he probably would have won Olympic gold medals in 1940 and 1944. He retired from pole-vaulting competition in 1944, and his records stood for several years. Not until Jan. 27, 1951, did Bob Richards become the second man to vault 4.57 m. Don Bragg, who employed an aluminium pole, broke Warmerdam’s long-standing outdoor record with a vault of 4.8 m on July 2, 1960. In 1975 Warmerdam achieved a competitive vault of 3.2 m at age 60.

Arthur Miller, New York, New York

Playwright, Miller’s work combines social issues with personal responsibility. He grew up during the Depression and saw his father ruined by financial collapse and sowed the seeds for his concern with the insecurity of modern existence. Miller’s first success was in 1945 but his most well known and important work is ‘Death of a Salesman’ (1949). Miller went on to write more plays and short stories. His second marriage to actress Marilyn Monroe in 1956 saw him write the screen play for the film ‘The Misfits’ in which she starred. They were divorced in 1961. [Ed: His well known sexual appetite is reflected by Venus in paran with Thuban, but his social responsiblity which function through his writting is expressed by the Moon in paran with Zuben Eschamali].

Eddie Arcaro, Cincinnati, Ohio

Jockey, Eddie Arcaro was winner of the Kentucky Derby on five occasions, and was six times the leading money-winner in the USA. In 1941 and 1948 he won the hourse-racing triple crown. – Kentucky Derby, Preakness Stakes and the Belmont Stakes. After his retirement he became a TV sports commentator.

Sirimavo Bandaranaike, Ratnapura, Sri Lanka

Politician, The World’s first female Prime Minister. Born into a wealthy family, she married the politician S.W.R.D. Bandaranaike in 1940 and began to interest herself in social welfare. After her husband, who became prime minister in 1956, was assassinated in 1959, she was induced by his Sri Lanka Freedom Party (SLFP) to become the party’s leader. The SLFP won a decisive victory at the general election in July 1960, and she became prime minister.

By 1964 a deepening economic crisis and the SLFP’s coalition with the Marxist Lanka Sama Samaja Party (‘Ceylon Socialist Party’) had eroded popular support for her government, which was resoundingly defeated in the general election of 1965. In 1970, however, her socialist coalition, the United Front, regained power, and as prime minister Bandaranaike pursued more radical policies. Her government further restricted free enterprise, nationalized industries, carried out land reforms, and promulgated a new constitution that created an executive presidency and made Ceylon into a republic named Sri Lanka. While reducing inequalities of wealth, Bandaranaike’s socialist policies had once again caused economic stagnation, and her government’s support of Buddhism and the Sinhalese language had helped alienate the country’s large Tamil minority. The failure to deal with ethnic rivalries and economic distress led, in the election of July 1977, to the SLFP’s retaining only 8 of the 168 seats in the National Assembly, and Bandaranaike was replaced as prime minister.

In 1980 the Sri Lanka parliament stripped her of her political rights and barred her from political office, but in 1986 President J.R. Jayawardene granted her a pardon that restored her rights. She ran unsuccessfully as the SLFP’s candidate for president in 1988, and after regaining a seat in parliament in 1989 she became the leader of the opposition.

Morris West, Melbourne, Australia

Writer, Australian novelist noted for such best-sellers as The Devil’s Advocate (1959) and The Shoes of the Fisherman (1963).

Educated at the University of Melbourne, West taught modern languages and mathematics as a member of the Christian Brothers Order in New South Wales and Tasmania from 1933 until he joined the army in 1939, having left the order before taking his final vows. In 1943 he was released from the army and began working for the radio network of The Herald in Melbourne. He later became a partner in Australasian Radio Productions, but after 10 years he suffered a breakdown, sold his share of the business, and settled near Sydney as a writer. In 1955 he established himself permanently in Sorrento, Italy. Though West had previously written several novels, his first popular success was Children of the Sun (1957), a non-fiction account of the slum children of Naples. It was followed by such novels as The Devil’s Advocate, Daughter of Silence (1961), The Shoes of the Fisherman, The Ambassador (1965), The Tower of Babel (1968), Summer of the Red Wolf (1971), The Navigator (1976), Proteus (1979), and The Clowns of God (1981).[Ed: Castor in paran with his Sun shows the identity of the writer]. West worked with themes of international interest; his best-known books combine religion and intrigue in what have been called ‘religious thrillers.’

Sidney Nolan, Melbourne, Australia

Painter, Nolan is known for his paintings which are generally based on figures from Australian folklore and Australian landscapes. His most famous one is that of Ned Kelly (bushranger) 1954. Nolan has exhibited widely and his work also includes sets and costumes for ballet and opera. His second wife wrote a three volume memoir published between 1967 band 1971.

Jacquelin Auriol, Challans, France

Aviator, Auriol broke the women’s jet speed record in 1955 (age 28) by flying at 715 mph in a French Mystere. She published ‘I love to Fly’ in 1970. [Ed: The combination of both Capella, a love of speed, with her Mars, and Mirfak the challenge loving stars, with her Moon, really does capture her life].

Muriel Spark, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Novelist, Poet, Playwright, British novelist, critic, poet, and playwright who progressed from fantastic themes to a preoccupation with the weighty and malign. Her best-known novel is The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie (1961), which also became popular in its stage (1966) and film (1969) versions. Educated in Edinburgh, Muriel Spark spent some years in Central Africa and then returned to Great Britain during World War II. Thereafter she served as general secretary of the Poetry Society and editor of The Poetry Review (1947-49) and later published a series of critical biographies of literary figures and editions of 19th-century letters, including Child of Light: A Reassessment of Mary Shelley (1951), John Masefield (1953), and The Brontë Letters (1954). She converted to Roman Catholicism in 1954, and much of her work concerns questions of good and evil. Her works include The Ballad of Peckham Rye (1960), The Girls of Slender Means (1963), The Mandelbaum Gate (1965), The Driver’s Seat (1970, film 1974), Not to Disturb (1971), and Loitering with Intent (1981), The Abbess of Crew (1974, film Nasty Habits 1977). Territorial Rights (1979). Other works include Collected Poems I and Collected Stories I (both 1967).

Jorn Utzon, Copenhagen, Denmark

Architect, Danish architect best known for his dynamic, imaginative, but problematical design for the Sydney Opera House, Australia. Utzon studied at the Copenhagen School of Architecture (1937-42) and then spent three years in Stockholm. He also studied in the United States, and, for a six-month period in 1946, he worked in the office of the Finnish architect and designer Alvar Aalto. Among his important early works were two houses in Denmark, his own at Hallebaek (1952) and another at Holte (1952-53).

In 1956 Utzon’s dramatic design for the new opera house at Sydney placed first in competition and brought him international fame. Construction, however, posed a variety of problems, many resulting from the innovative nature of the design, a series of sail like shells. He resigned from the project in 1966, but construction continued until September 1973. The completed Opera House is now Sydney’s best-known landmark. He was given numerous awards for his works, including a gold medal by the Royal Institute of British Architects in 1978. (Ed: His fame over the very difficult design and resulting construction of the Sydney Opera House is best described in his chart by firstly Arcturus with his Venus and secondly Aldebaran being on the Nadir as it formed a paran to his Jupiter).

Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, Kislovodsk, Russia

Novelist, Russian novelist and historian, who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature for 1970. Solzhenitsyn was born into a family of Cossack intellectuals and brought up primarily by his mother (his father was killed in an accident before his birth). He fought in World War II, achieving the rank of captain of artillery; in 1945, however, he was arrested for writing a letter in which he criticized Joseph Stalin and spent eight years in prisons and labour camps, after which he spent three more years in enforced exile. Rehabilitated in 1956, he was allowed to settle in Ryazan, in central Russia, where he became a mathematics teacher and began to write. In 1962 Solzhenitsyn submitted his short novel One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich to the leading Soviet literary periodical Novy Mir. The novel quickly appeared in that journal’s pages and met with immediate popularity, The book produced a political sensation both abroad and in the Soviet Union, where it inspired a number of other writers to produce accounts of their imprisonment under Stalin’s regime. The following years were marked by the foreign publication of several ambitious novels that secured Solzhenitsyn’s international literary reputation. The First Circle and Cancer Ward followed. In 1970 Solzhenitsyn was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature, but he declined to go to Stockholm to receive the prize for fear he would not be readmitted to the Soviet Union by the government upon his return. His next novel, in 1971 was August 1914. In December 1973 the first parts of The Gulag Archipelago were published in Paris. Solzhenitsyn was immediately attacked in the Soviet press and arrested and charged with treason on Feb. 12, 1974. Solzhenitsyn was exiled from the Soviet Union on the following day, and in December he took possession of his Nobel Prize. Solzhenitsyn’s Soviet citizenship was officially restored in 1990. He ended his exile and returned to Russia in 1994. [Ed: His disregrad for his personal safety enabling him to write is symbolised by both Pollux and Alpheratz in paran with his Mars]

Peter Abrahams, Vredefort, South Africa

Novelist, Most of Abrahams work was produced in exile. The impoverished township where he was born is vividly recreated in a memoir ‘Tell Freedom’ (1954). His mature work produced novels that dealt mainly with the political struggles of black people (Achernar in paran with Venus). ‘A Wreath for Udomo’ (1956), ‘A Night of their Own’ 1965) to name just two of his works.

Sir Edmund Hillary, Auckland, New Zealand

Mountain Climber, Hilary, together with his Tibetan guide, Tenzing Norgay, was the first to reach the summit of the world’s highest mountain, Mt Everest. He started climbing in the New Zealand Alps and by 1951, he had joined a New Zealand climbing party in the central Himalayas. In 1953, as a member of the British Everest exhibition, Hilary reached the sumit on 29 May. [Ed: Scheat with his Mars talks of his physical skills as a mountaineer]. He was knighted for his efforts and in 1955, the book outlining the climb was published. He was also part of an Antarctic expedition which attempted to cross the frozen continent. Hilary arrived at the South Pole on 4 Jan 1958 on a tractor. In 1967 he scaled the highest peak in the Antarctic and in 1977 led the first jet boat expedition up the Ganges and then climbed to its source deep in the Himalayas. He also devoted most of his life working to help the mountain people of Nepal. [Ed: Hillary’s birth time to set to pre sunrise, as this is supported by the star parans.]

Sun Myung Moon, Pyongan Pukdo, South Korea

Evangelist, Moon was the founder of the Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity known as the Unification Church. Known to his followers as Father, Moon’s disciples are known as Moonies. In his work ‘The Divine Principle’ (1952) he revealed that at 16 he had a vision of Christ instructing him to carry out Christ’s unfinished business. He believed that he had been elected by God to save mankind. [Ed Both Alkes and Fomalhaut in paran with Saturn gives him the belief that he is a source for others to draw on as well as the desire to create an idealistic or religious foundation.] He started to preach his doctrines in Korea in 1946 and was excommunicated by the Presbyterian Church two years later. The North Korean authorities also imprisoned him. He was released in 1950 and fled to South Korea where he founded the church in 1954. He built the church up into a multi-milion dollar enterprise which included factories producing arms, machinery and ginseng tea. He started evnagelising in the USA in the 1970’s and encountered hostility against his supposed indoctrination of converts. In 1973, the church moved its headquarters to the USA and operated an international business network. Immigration and tax evasion accussations were also levelled and Moon was convicted in 1982 and went to prison in 1984.

Bella Abzug, New York, New York

Feminist lawyer, politician, Nicked named Battling Bella she studied at Hunter College and Columbia University and practised as a lawyer in New York City. A prominent peace campaigner, she founded Women Strike for Peace at the age of 41 (1961) and the National Women’s Political Caucus. Winning a seat in Congress (1971) at the age of 51 years old. She was a vigorous champion of welfare issues. [Ed: Mars in paran with the leadership star Arcturus describes her assertive leadership skills as well as Capulus in paran with Mars having a healthy expression as the Battling Bella image]

Satyajit Ray, Calcutta, India

Film Director, Satyajit Ray is credited with modernising Indian cinema and bringing international recognition to the industry. Ray was born into a family of artists and was destined for a career in science. However, through the influence of Rabindranath Tagore, he became interested in the arts. He entered the advertising industry and in 1945, decided to try and become a filmmaker. Seven years later, he realised his dream and the film ‘Panther Panchali (1955)’ was completed gaining great acclaim. His subsequent films have also been great successes.

Michael Ventris, Wheathampstead, England

Cryptographer, Architect and cryptographer who in 1952 deciphered the Minoan Linear B script and showed it to be Greek in its oldest known form, dating from about 1400 to 1200 BC, roughly the period of the events narrated in the Homeric epics. As a boy, his fascination with the classics led Ventris to study Greek and Latin. A competent and zealous cryptographer at 14, in 1936 he heard the famed archaeologist Sir Arthur Evans lecture on the Linear B script that he had discovered at Knossos, Crete, in about 1900 and how it still baffled linguists and archaeologists. Ventris’ determination to solve the puzzle of this peculiar writing dated from that time. [Ed: His Mercury in paran with a rising Castor shows his language skills and Fomalhaut rising in paran to his Mars shows his determination to follow his dreams]. At 18 Ventris published a paper in the American Journal of Archaeology supporting the possibility of a relation between the script and another problematic language, Etruscan. In 1949, following architectural studies that had been interrupted by service in the Royal Air Force during World War II, he began searching in earnest for the key to Linear B. The method by which he achieved success was essentially that of statistical analysis, aided by stray hints from the analysis of various arrangements of syllabic signs. After the publication (1951) of texts in an almost identical script found on the Greek mainland in 1939, Ventris’ progress was rapid. In June 1952 he announced over a British radio program that he had found the Linear B to be a very archaic form of Greek. Joined shortly thereafter by the Cambridge linguist John Chadwick, they assembled dramatic evidence supporting Ventris’ theory. In 1953 they published their historic paper, ‘Evidence for Greek Dialect in the Mycenaean Archives.’ Their Documents in Mycenaean Greek (1956; rev. ed., 1973) was published a few weeks after Ventris’ death in an auto accident, and Chadwick’s The Decipherment of Linear B (1958; 2nd ed., 1968) followed. He died on 6. Sep 1956.

Emil Zatopek, Koprivnica, Croatia

Athlete, Long-distance runner who won three gold medals in the 1952 Olympic Games at Helsinki: in the 5,000- and 10,000-metre races and in the marathon. During his career he set 18 world records, holding the 10,000-metre record from 1949 to 1954, his best time being 28 min 54.2 s. He also set world records for 5,000 m, 10 miles, one hour, 20,000 m, 15 miles, 25,000 m, and 30,000 m. [Ed: Spica in paran with his Jupiter indicates his record-breaking feats]. Zátopek began to run early in the 1940s and first attracted international attention in 1946, as a private in the Czech army, when he bicycled from Prague to Berlin to enter the 5,000-metre race in an Allied Occupation Forces meet and won it. His best record in 1951 was for 20,000 m in 59 min 51.8 s. In the 1952 Olympic Games at Helsinki, he set Olympic records for the 5,000- and 10,000-metre races and ran the fastest marathon ever run to that time. Zatopek retired as a runner in 1958. In 1969 he was deprived of his colonel rang in the Czech army and of his Communist Party membership when he spoke out against the Soviet takeover of Czechoslovakia of the previous year, but from 1970 he worked with the Czechoslovak Physical Training Association and by the late 1970s was associated with the Czech national sports institute. Zatopek died on Nov 2000.

Brendan Behan, Dublin, Dublin, Ireland

Author, Rebel, Brendan Behan was an Irish rebel and writer whose work and political commentary highlighted the troubles in Ireland. He was raised in a family active in revolutionary causes against the British. At the age of eight he began a life-long battle with alcoholism. He left school in 1937, learned a trade as well as became involved with the IRA. In 1940, while on a sabotage mission in England, he was arrested and sentenced to three years in a reformatory. He was sent back to Dublin in 1942 but was again arrested over the shooting of a policeman. He was sentenced to 14 years but was released in a general amnesty in 1946. There were further arrests either for revolutionary activities, or for alcoholism. He was also hospitalised several times. He went to France in 1948 to write and returned to Ireland in 1950. There he wrote a column and married in 1953. His first play, ‘The Quare Fellow’ was staged in 1954 and then staged in London and New York in 1956. He died on 20 Mar 1964.

Diane Arbus, New York, New York

Photographer, The daughter of a wealth business man at the age of 18 she rejected a college education and married one of her father’s fashion photographers. This marriage ended in divorce in 1969. Arbus, through her photography sort to protray people ‘without their mask’ achieving fame in the 1960’s with her ironic studies of high society juxtaposed with the squalor of the poor. She suicided in 1971.

Marcel Marceau, Strasbourg, France

Mime, Marceau is considered to be the best mime artist of the twentieth century and his signature character is Bip, half Pierrot, half Chaplin’s little tramp. [Ed: Zosma culminating with his Mercury is expressed in the character of Bip, a gentle character, without power and sometimes victimised]. Marceau served in the French army in World War II and also the underground. After the war, he studied at the School of Dramatic Art and introduced his character, Bip to the world in 1947. [Ed: There are many key stars in Marceau chart but one of them shows his phyisical genius and inventiveness and that is Hamal with his Mars]

Sarah Vaughan, Newark, New Jersey

Jazz singer, byname SASSY, or THE DIVINE ONE

American jazz vocalist and pianist known for her rich voice, with an unusually wide range, and for the inventiveness and virtuosity of her improvisations. Among her best-known songs were ‘It’s Magic,’ ‘Make Yourself Comfortable,’ ‘Broken-Hearted Melody,’ ‘Misty,’ and ‘Send in the Clowns.’

Vaughan was born to musical parents, a carpenter father who played guitar and a laundress mother who sang in a local Newark Baptist choir. Vaughan herself sang in the church choir as a child and also took piano lessons throughout the 1930s and studied the organ. In October 1942 she won a talent contest at the Apollo Theatre in New York City, singing ‘Body and Soul.’ On the recommendation of singer Billy Eckstine, she joined Earl Hines’s big band in 1943 as vocalist and second pianist. When Eckstine formed his own band the following year, Vaughan made her first recordings with the group. Beginning in 1945 Vaughan performed as a soloist, often with her own trio but also with other jazz groups and bands as well as with symphony orchestras. She toured throughout the world and recorded extensively, and she came to be regarded as one of the greatest of all jazz singers.

Paul Bocuse, Collonges, Rhone-Alpes, France

Chef, Bocuse is renowned for introducing a lighter style of cooking. Born into a family of chefs and restaurateurs, he served his apprenticeship before taking over the failing family business in 1959. He attracted attention with his ‘nouvelle cuisine’ that emphasised freshness and simplicity in cooking and presentation. He abandoned many of the established conventions of haute cuisine and he found a following in many younger chefs both in France and the rest of the world. His books published in the 1970’s and 1980’s brought ‘nouvelle cuisine’ into the home.

Chuck Berry, Saint Louis, Missouri

Songwriter, Singer, Chuck Berry was one of the first to shape blues music into what is known today as rock n’ roll. He served time in a reformatory for burglary and led a blues trio in the early 1950’s. In 1955 he went to Chicago and recorded his first hit, ‘Maybellene’. From there, the name rock n’ roll was adopted to describe the new music and Berry was at the forefront with many other hits such as ‘Roll over, Beethoven’, ‘Rock n’ Roll Music’ and ‘Johnny B Goode’. In 1959 he was convicted for transporting a woman for illegal purposes and served a two-year sentence. After his release in 1964, he went on to prosper as a recording artist and performer.

Thomas Altizer, Cambridge, Massachusetts

Theologian, As a proponent of one strand of the 1960’s ‘Death of God’ theology, he held that in the Incarnation God became fully human and lost his divine attributes and existence.

James Earl Ray, Alton, Illinois

Assassin, Ray’s notoriety rests on his assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. He was a small-time burglar who had served several terms in prison escaping a number of times. It was on one of this escapes that he shot King on 4 April 1968. He fled to London and Europe and was finally apprehended on 8 June of that year. Ray was tried and sentenced to 99 years in prison. In June 1977, he again escaped but was apprehended several days later. [Ed: Capella in paran with his Sun as well as Saturn in paran with Rigel, gave him the belief that he could function outside of restrictions and rules].

Maya Angelou, Saint Louis, Missouri

Writer, singer, dancer, Afric, Angelou had a variety of occupations in what she describes as ‘a roller-coaster life’. She toured Europe and Africa in the muscial ‘Porgy and Bess’, and in New York City joined the Harlem Writers Guild. In 1960, age 32, she became involved in black struggles, then spent several years in Ghana as editor of ‘African Review’. Her published autobiography was a popular success and she has since written two more novels and several books of verse.

John Nash, Bluefield, West Virginia

Mathematician, John Nash the mathatical genius of A Beautiful Mind. John Nash, was a singular little boy, solitary and introverted was brought up in a loving family surrounded by close relations who showed him much affection. He seems to have shown a lot of interest in books when he was young but little interest in playing with other children. His mother responded by enthusiastically encouraging Johnny’s education, both by seeing that he got good schooling and also by teaching him herself. Johnny’s teachers at school certainly did not recognise his genius, and it would appear that he gave them little reason to realise that he had extraordinary talents. By the time he was about twelve years old he was showing great interest in carrying out scientific experiments in his room at home. It is fairly clear that he learnt more at home than he did at school.

Nash first showed an interest in mathematics when he was about 14 years old. He entered Bluefield College in 1941 and there he took mathematics courses as well as science courses, in particular studying chemistry which was a favourite topic. He began to show abilities in mathematics, particularly in problem solving, but still with hardly any friends and behaving in a somewhat eccentric manner, this only added to his fellow pupils view of him as peculiar. Nash won a scholarship in the George Westinghouse Competition and was accepted by the Carnegie Institute of Technology (now Carnegie-Mellon University) which he entered in June. There his talent in mathematics was recognised and he was persuaded to become a mathematics specialist. Although his mathematics professors heaped praise on him, his fellow students found him a very strange person.

In September 1948 Nash entered Princeton where he showed an interest in a broad range of pure mathematics: topology, algebraic geometry, game theory and logic were among his interests but he seems to have avoided attending lectures. Usually those who decide not to learn through lectures turn to books but this appears not to be so for Nash who decided not to learn mathematics ‘second-hand’ but rather to develop topics himself. In many ways this approach was successful for it did contribute to him developing into one of the most original of mathematicians who would attack a problem in a totally novel way. In 1949, while studying for his doctorate, he wrote a paper which 45 years later was to win a Nobel prize for economics. During this period Nash established the mathematical principles of game theory.

From 1952 Nash taught at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology but his teaching was unusual (and unpopular with students) and his examining methods were highly unorthodox. During his time at MIT Nash began to have personal problems with his life which were in addition to the social difficulties he had always suffered. In the summer of 1954, while working for RAND, Nash was arrested in a police operation to trap homosexuals. He was dismissed from RAND. A long sad episode followed which included periods of hospital treatment, temporary recovery, then further treatment. His wife eventually divorced Nash, although she continued to try to help him, and after a period of extreme mental torture he appeared to become lost to the world, removed from ordinary society, although he spent much of his time in the Mathematics Department at Princeton. Slowly over many years Nash recovered. Despite spending periods in hospital because of his mental condition, his mathematical work continued to have success after success. He said:-

I would not dare to say that there is a direct relation between mathematics and madness, but there is no doubt that great mathematicians suffer from maniacal characteristics, delirium and symptoms of schizophrenia.

In the 1990s Nash made a recovery from the schizophrenia from which he had suffered since 1959. His ability to produce mathematics of the highest quality did not totally leave him. Nash was awarded (jointly with Harsanyi and Selten) the 1994 Nobel Prize in Economic Science for his work on game theory.

Che Guevara, Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina

Revolutionary, Guevara is best known as guerilla fighter and prominent figure in the Cuban revolution and in South America. He was well educated and in spite of his asthma, he was a good scholar and athlete completing a medical degree in 1953. As a result of travels around South America he became convinced that socialism was the only answer to the poverty and oppression. His plan was to bring socialism to all through a worldwide revolution. He joined Fidel Castro and when Havana fell on 2 Jan 1959, he became a prominent figure in the new Cuba. In the early 1960’s he was formulating policy and heading various organisations. After 1965, he left public life and spent some time training guerillas in the Congo. In 1966, he went to Bolivia where on 8 Oct 1967, the guerilla group he was leading was ambushed by the Bolivian army. Guevara was captured and later executed.

Norton Zinder, New York, New York

Biologist, American biologist who discovered the occurrence of genetic transduction–the carrying of hereditary material from one strain of micro-organisms to another by a filterable agent such as a bacteriophage, or bacterial virus–in species of the Salmonella bacteria. After attending Columbia University, Zinder studied under Joshua Lederberg at the University of Wisconsin (Ph.D., 1952) and then joined the staff at the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research (now Rockefeller University) in New York City, where he became a professor in 1964.

Zinder hoped to go beyond Lederberg’s 1946 discovery of mating in the bacterium Escherichia coli. By allowing species of Salmonella to conjugate (to exchange genetic material in a kind of reproduction) in a special nutritional medium, Zinder hoped to obtain a large number of mutant bacteria to use in his experiments. Instead of conjugating, however, the bacteria exhibited another form of genetic exchange, genetic transduction. Using bacterial transduction, later experimenters were able to show that bacterial genes affecting selected physiological processes were clustered together in what are now known as operons. Zinder’s experiments also led to the discovery of the only known phage containing ribonucleic acid (RNA) as its genetic material.

Anne Frank, Frankfurt am Main, Germany

Diarist, Anne Frank is known for the diary she kept for two years while in hiding to escape the Nazi persecution. Her family went to live in the Netherlands shortly after the Nazis came to power in Germany. When the Netherlands was occupied by Nazi forces, the Frank family went into hiding on 9 Jul 1942 in a secret annexe. The family remained there until 4 Aug 1944 when they were discovered and were transported to concetration camps in Germany. Anne’s mother died in 1945 and later Anne and her sister both died of typhus. Her father survived and on his return was given papers left behind after the Nazi raid. Among them was Anne’s diary which was published in 1947. In it she recorded her innermost thoughts through the trying times. Anne Frank died in March 1945.

Francis Gary Powers, Jenkins, Kentucky

Pilot, Spy, Powers was a US air force pilot who was captured on 1 May 1960 while flying a reconnaissance mission deep in Soviet air space. The incident was known as the ‘U-2 affair’ and resulted in the USSR cancelling a meeting with the USA, Great Britain and France. Powers was tried and convicted of espionage and sentenced to 10 years imprisonment. He was released as a result of a prisoner exchange for the Soviet spy Rudolf Abel in 1962. He returned to the USA and published an account of the incident in 1970. He died in a helicopter accident on 1 Aug 1977.

Stirling Moss, London, United Kingdom

Racing Driver, Moss is considered to be one of the greatest racing car drivers in the world. He won the British driving champiionships in from 1950-52 and again from 1954-59 and then in 1961. He won the British Grand Prix in 1955 and 1957 and the Monaco Grand Prix in 1956, 1960 and 1961. He was the first Englishman to win the Italian Mille Miglia. Moss retired in 1962 after bring critically injured in a crash. [Ed: His single mindedness required for such a profession is a positive refection of his Mars in paran with Facies]. He has written several books on racing as well as journal articles.

John Barth, Cambridge, Maryland

Novelist, American writer best known for novels that combine philosophical depth and complexity with biting satire and boisterous, frequently bawdy humour. Much of Barth’s writing is concerned with the seeming impossibility of choosing the right action in a world that has no absolute values.

Barth grew up on the eastern shore of Maryland, the locale of most of his writing. His first two novels, The Floating Opera (1956) and The End of the Road (1958), describe characters burdened by a sense of the futility of all action and the effects of these characters upon the less self-conscious, more active people around them. Barth forsook realism and modern settings in The Sot-Weed Factor (1960), a picaresque tale that burlesques the early history of Maryland and parodies the 18th-century English novel. All three novels appeared in revised editions in 1967. His later work has explored opera and some other experimental pieces.

Edward White, San Antonio, Texas

Astronaut, First U.S. astronaut to walk in space. [Ed Capella on the nadir in paran with his Moon shows that he represented, for the collective, the limitlessness of space]. White graduated from the U.S. Military Academy, West Point, N.Y., in 1952 and was commissioned a second lieutenant in the U.S. Air Force. In 1959 he received his M.S. in aeronautical engineering from the University of Michigan and graduated from the Air Force Test Pilot School, Edwards Air Force Base, California. He was selected in 1962 as a member of the second group of astronauts. Often called the most physically fit astronaut, he was chosen to join James A. McDivitt on the four-day orbital flight of Gemini 4, launched on June 3, 1965. During the third orbit White emerged from the spacecraft, floated in space for about 20 minutes, and became the first person to propel himself in space with a maneuvering unit. White was subsequently one of the three-man crew of Apollo 1 who in 1967 were the first casualties of the U.S. space program, killed during a flight simulation (the others were Virgil I. Grissom and Roger B. Chaffee).n He died 27 Jan 1967.

Chinua Achebe,Ogijo, Nigeria

Novelist, In his earlier career he was in broadcasting. His first novel ‘Things Fall Apart’ (1958) presenting an unsentimentalised picture of the Ibo tribe, was heralded as a fresh voice in African literature, and has since been translated into over 40 languages.

Alvin Ailey, Rogers, Texas

Dancer, Choreographer, Ailey was a member of Lester Horon’s company in 1950, then in New York City he trained with Martha Graham and others. He retired from the stage in 1965 to devote himself to the Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater, a hugely popular, multi-racial modern dance ensemble he formed in 1958. His most famous dance is ‘Revelations’ 1960 a celebratory study of religious spirit.

Colin Wilson, Leicestershire, United Kingdom

Novelist, English novelist and writer on philosophy, sociology, music, literature, and the occult. Wilson left school at age 16. He subsequently worked as a laboratory assistant, civil servant, labourer, dishwasher, and factory worker. His first book, The Outsider (1956) was a study of alienation as glimpsed through the lives and writings of some of the principal intellectual figures of the 20th century. It was at first acclaimed for its brilliance, and this initial critical response catapulted Wilson to fame at the age of 24, in the process making The Outsider a best seller. His first novel, Ritual in the Dark (1960), was published. When his second novel, Adrift in Soho, appeared in 1961. Many of Wilson’s books deal with the psychology of crime, the occult, human sexuality, or Wilson’s own original form of Existential philosophy. [Ed: Many of Wilson’s stars capture the fabric of his life but Murzims on his nadir with his Sun shows the theme of wanting to make comment, having something to say].

Eduard Suess, London, United Kingdom

Geologist, Austrian geologist who helped lay the basis for paleogeography and tectonics–i.e., the study of the architecture and evolution of the Earth’s outer rocky shell. Suess’s The Face of the Earth, a four-volume treatise on the geologic structure of the entire planet, he discusses his theories of the structure and evolution of the lithosphere in greater detail, tracing the ancient changes in the continents and seas necessary to form the modern features of the Earth’s surface. Many of the common terms and concepts still in use in tectonics, such as Gondwanaland (a supercontinent that once consisted of South America, Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, India, Australia, and Antarctica) and Tethys (a former equatorial ocean), were first proposed in this book. The work also indicates that Suess was the first to recognize that major rift valleys such as those in East Africa were caused by the extension of the lithosphere. [Ed: His exploration of the physical world which led to greater knowledge of our planet can be seen in the paran of Jupiter and Deneb adige]

Suess became professor of paleontology at the University of Vienna in 1856 and professor of geology there in 1861. He developed the plan for a 69-mile (112-kilometre) aqueduct (completed 1873) that brought fresh water from the Alps to Vienna. He became a member of the Landtag (provincial assembly) of Lower Austria in 1869 and in 1873 entered the lower house of the Reichsrat (national parliament), where for more than 30 years he was a Liberal deputy from Vienna. He died on 26 April 1914.

Milos Foreman, Caslav, Czech Republic

Film Director, Foreman is a prominent director whose work has won wide acclaim. He trained in Pargue and went to the United States in 1969. He won an Academy Award for direction in the film ‘One Flew over the Cuckoo’s Nest’ and ‘Amadeus’.






Cory Aquino, Manila, Manila, Philippines

Politician, Aquino married Benigno Aquino in 1932 who was the main political opponent to Ferdinand Marcos. He was imprisoned and later assassinated by a military guard in 1983. Cory was then drafted by the Opposition to contest the 1986 presidential election that claimed victory over Marcos. She led a non-violent ‘people power’ campaign that succeeded in overthrowing Marcos. [Ed: Bellatrix in paran with her Mars showing her blue-colour victory and success] She survived several coup attempts during her presidency, but did not stand for re-election in 1992.

Fleur Adcock, Papakura, New Zealand

Poet, Adcock studied at Victoria University in Wellington, New Zealand and later held various library posts in NZ and the UK where she lived until 1963. Her poetry is notable for its unsentimental treatment of personal and family relationships, it psychological insights and its interest in classical themes. [Ed: Mirfak culminating with her Venus shows her tendency to be candid in personal relationships].

Yury Gagarin, Gzhatsk, Russia

Astronaut, Gagarin became the first man to travel in space. He graduated from a trade school in 1951. While he continued further studies he also took up flying and entered the Soviet Air Force as a cadet in 1957. He orbited the Earth in the soviet spacecraft Vostok 1 on 12 Apr 1961. The feat brought his worldwide fame and he was awared the Order of Lenin. He never went into space again but became a trainer and mentor for future Soviet cosmonauts. He died on 27 Mar 1968.

Wole Soyinka, Abeokuta, Nigeria

Novelist, Poet, Playwright, Nigerian playwright, poet, novelist, and critic who received the Nobel Prize for Literature for 1986. He wrote of modern West Africa in a satirical style and with a tragic sense of the obstacles to human progress. A member of the Yoruba people, Soyinka attended Government College and University College in Ibadan before graduating in English in 1958 from the University of Leeds, in England. Upon his return to Nigeria he founded a national theatre, and wrote his first important play, A Dance of the Forests (produced 1960, published 1963), for the Nigerian independence celebrations. From 1960 to 1964 Soyinka was co-editor of Black Orpheus, an important literary journal. >From 1960 onward he taught literature and drama and headed various theatre groups.

Hank Aaron, Mobile, Alabama

Sport, Baseball Player, A right-handed batting outfielder, he set almost every batting record in his 23-season career.

Gherman Stepanovich Titov, Barnaul, Altayskiy Kray, Russia

Astronaut, Titiov was piloted the the spacecraft, Vostok 2, on the first manned spaceflight of more than a single orbit. In 1953, he embarked on avaiation cadet training and graduated in 1957 as a jet fighter pilot. In 1960, he began cosmonaut training and was awarded the Order of Lenin for an engineering proposal. Duringthe flight of the Vostok, Titov was given the code name Eagle and in transmissions full of excitement and heard all around the world, he identified himself with, ‘I am the Eagle!’ Titov was made a hero of the Soviet Union and received a second Order of Lenin. His writings include, I am the Eagle (1962), Seven Cosmic Dawns (1963) and My Sky-blue Planet (1973). Hey

Lester Piggott, Wantage, United Kingdom

Jockey, Piggott is considered one of the world’s leading horse racing jockeys. He rode his first race at the age of 12 and won the Derby nine times between 1954-1983 as well as major British races including Ascot and St Leger. By 1982 he had ridden 4000 winners. He was created an officer in the Order of the British Empire in 1975.

Jim Henson, Greenville, Mississippi

Puppeteer, Henson is known as the creator of the ‘Muppets’, a term he coined to describe his creations which were a meld of marionettes and puppets. Just before he went to college in 1956 he got a job as a puppeteer on a local television program and kept the job throughout his schooling. It was during this time that he developed some of his famous characters including Kermit the Frog. After graduation, Henson did commercials and guest appearances with his creations. In 1969, with the launch of Sesame Street, his charaters became very popular and in 1976 the Muppet Show premiered in England. Several films also followed. Henson died on 16 May 1990.

Boris Spassky, Leningrad, Russia

Chess Champion, Soviet chess master, world champion from 1969 to 1972.

When Spassky was evacuated from Leningrad during World War II to a children’s home in Kirov Region, he learned to play chess. While still in his teens he gained the rank of international master (1953). [Ed His stars are most interesting as there are four stars rising and linked to his Mercury expressing themselves in his youth.] In 1955 he won the World Junior Championship, and the same year he won the title of international grand master. In the following years, however, he was overshadowed by the rise of the young Riga chess genius Mikhail Tal. In 1966, still having little international reputation, Spassky first challenged Tigran Petrosyan for the world title, but he was not successful at taking the title until three years later. In 1972 he lost the world title to Bobby Fischer of the United States.

Tom Stoppard, Zlín, Czech Republic

Playwright, Original name TOMAS STRAUSSLER, Czech-born British playwright whose work is marked by verbal brilliance, ingenious action, and structural dexterity. Stoppard’s father, Eugene Straussler, was a company physician whose Czech company sent him (with his family) to a branch factory in Singapore in 1938/39. (Acubens rising in paran with his Moon) After the Japanese invasion, his father stayed on (and was killed), but Mrs. Straussler and her two sons escaped to India, where in 1946 she married a British officer, Kenneth Stoppard. Soon afterward the family went to live in England. Tom Stoppard (he had assumed his stepfather’s surname) quit school and started his career as a journalist in Bristol in 1954.[Ed: Castor in paran with Mercury indicating his gift with words and writing]. He began to write plays in 1960 after moving to London. In 1965 Stoppard was one of five new writers whose short stories were anthologised in Introduction 2 (1964). His first play, A Walk on the Water (1960), was televised in 1963. A stage version was produced in Berlin and Vienna in 1964; and, with some additions and a new title, Enter a Free Man, it reached London in 1968. His play Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead (1964-65) was given an amateur performance at the Edinburgh Festival (1966), then entered the repertory of Britain’s National Theatre in 1967.

Dawn Fraser, Sydney, Australia

Swimmer, Dawn Fraser was the first female swimmer to win gold medals in three consecutive Olympics. She won her first gold medal at the 1956 Melbourne Olympics followed by medals in Rome in 1960 and in Tokyo in 1964. Fraser did not compete again as at the end of the 1964 Olympics she was accused of stealing a Japanese flag from the Imperial Palace. She was suspended from competition for several years and never competed again. Many years later, a team member admitted to being the culprit. She continued to support young swimmers in Australia and was selected Australian team mascot for the 1996 Atlanta Games. While there, she suffered a coronary scare but despite this she continues to be a sporting advocate.

Kerry Packer, Sydney, Australia, New South Wales

Media proprietor, Kerry Packer in the late 20th century was Australia’s riches man. [Ed: Zuban Eschamali with his Mars giving him an ambition to gain rank and power in the establishment world]. He inherited the Australian Consolidated Press group from his father. In 1977 he created ‘World Series Cricket’ contracting the leading Test cricketers for a knock-out series of one-day matches under floodlights, sole television rights for which were held by the ACP’s channel nine. This les to disputes with national cricket bodies and provoked many legal battles, before a modus operandi was established. He sold Channel Nine to Allan Bond at the height of the 1987 boom for $A1 billion, only to buy it back in 1990 for a fraction of that amount. he has pastoral, mining, manufacturing and property investments. In the year 2000 it was discovered that his homestead property had a considerable opal deposit. [Edit: Kerry Parckers Stars are far more discriptive of his life if he was born between midnight and dawn]

Ferdinand Zeppelin, Konstanz, Germany

Industrialist, The first notable builder of rigid dirigible airships, for which his surname is still a popular generic term. Zeppelin received a military commission in 1858. He made the first of several balloon ascensions at St. Paul, Minn., while acting as a military observer (1863) for the Union Army during the American Civil War. He saw military action in 1866 during the Seven Weeks’ War and in 1870-71 during the Franco-German War, serving successively in the armies of Wurttemberg, Prussia, and imperial Germany. He retired in 1890 and devoted the rest of his life to the creation of the rigid airship for which he is known.

Zeppelin struggled for 10 years to produce his lighter-than-air craft. The initial flight (July 2, 1900) of the LZ-1 from a floating hangar on Lake Constance, near Friedrichshafen, Ger., was not entirely successful, but it had the effect of promoting the airship to the degree that public subscriptions and donations thereafter funded the count’s work. The German government was quick to perceive the advantage of airships over the as yet poorly developed airplanes, and when Zeppelin achieved 24-hour flight in 1906, he received commissions for an entire fleet. More than 100 zeppelins were used for military operations in World War I. A passenger service known as Delag (Deutsche-Luftschiffahrts AG) was established in 1910, but Zeppelin died on 8 March 1917,before attaining his goal of transcontinental flight.

Jackie Stewart, Dumbarton, United Kingdom

Racing Driver, Scottish automibile-racing driver who won the world championship driving title three times (1969, 1971, 1973). Stewart began as a garage mechanic in 1954, then a racing mechanic, and in 1961, a driver. His account of his racing career, ‘Faster’, was published in 1972. After his retirement from racing, he became a television commentator and familiar to fans as the ‘voice’ of the grand prix circuit. [Ed: Sualocin culminating while in paran with his Sun gave him a career where he was seen to be master of his environment; speed and racing].

John Lennon, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Composer, singer, John Lennon was the Beatles rhythm guitarist and vocalist and a partner in the Lennon-McCartney song writing team. He married Yoko Ono in 1969 that was his second marriage. Together they invented a form of peace protest by staying in bed while being filmed and interviewed, and the single recorded under the name ‘Give Peace a Chance’ (1969) became the national anthem for pacifist. [Mirach, the star of peace and joy, in paran with his Moon, symbolises his desire for peace, which he expressed through the arts and in peaceful protest]. One of his greatest song was Imagine (1971). He was shot dead by a crazed fan on 8 December 1980. (Ed: His life expresses the passion and intensity of Alcyone in paran with his Mars).

Pele (Edson Arantes do Nascimento), Tres Coracoes, Brazil

Soccer Player, Pele as he is known is considered to be the most famous athlete in the world. He led the Brazilian soccer team to three victories in soccer’s World Cup in 1958, 1962 and 1970. He received the International Peace Award in 1978. He has published a number of best selling autobiographies, produced documentary films and composed numerous musical pieces, including the entire soundtrack for the film ‘Pele’ in 1977. [Ed: Pele’s Sun in paran with Procyon shows his glorious talent plus his tendency to diversify].

Joan Baez, Staten Island, New York

Singer, Political Activist, The daughter of a physicist whose teaching and research took him to various communities in New York, California, and elsewhere, Baez moved often and acquired little formal musical training. Her soprano voice, usually accompanied only by her own guitar arrangements, was sometimes criticized as too pretty (Aculeus with Mercury). However, she was in the forefront of the 1960s folk-song revival, popularising traditional songs through her performances in coffeehouses, at music festivals, and on television and through her record albums, which were best-sellers from 1960 through 1964 and remained popular into the 1970s.

An active participant in the 1960s protest movement, Baez made free concert appearances for UNESCO, civil-rights organizations, and anti-Vietnam War rallies. In 1964 she refused to pay federal taxes that went toward war expenses, and she was jailed twice in 1967. Her autobiography, Daybreak, was published in 1968; her And a Voice to Sing With: A Memoir appeared in 1987.

Stephen Hawking, Oxford, United Kingdom

Physicist, Hawking is known for his work on black holes and his theories on space and time. He studied mathematics and physics at Oxford, in 1962 and completed a Ph.D. at Cambridge, in 1966. In the early 1960s he contracted an incurable degenerative neuromuscular disease but despite the disease’s progressively disabling effects, he continued to work [Ed: Rigel in paran with his Moon indicates a strong ability to be emotional self-contained]. In 1974 Hawking proposed that, in accordance with the predictions of quantum theory, black holes emit subatomic particles until they exhaust their energy and finally explode. Hawking’s work greatly spurred efforts to theoretically delineate the properties of black holes, objects about which it was previously thought that nothing could be known. His work was also important because it showed these properties’ relationship to the laws of classical thermodynamics and quantum mechanics. His work earned him many exceptional honours which included being elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1974, one of its youngest fellows. He became professor of gravitational physics at Cambridge in 1977, and in 1979 he was appointed to Lucasian professor of mathematics at Cambridge, a post once held by Isaac Newton.

Paul McCartney, Liverpool, England

Singer, Paul McCartney was a member of The Beatles, He met John Lennon in 1957, and made a debut with the group (known as The Quarry Men) on 18 October 1957. McCartney, the most popular Beatle, has become one of the most successful recording artists of the rock era. After the breakup of the Beatles in 1970 he went on to continue to produce music. His life has continued much grief with firstly the assassination of John Lenon [Ed A possible expression of Alphard culminating in paran with his Moon] and then later the death of his beloved wife from cancer.

Isabell Allende, Lima, Lima, Peru

Novelist, Allende uncle was Salvador Allende, the former president of Chile. Several months after the overthrow of Chile’s coalition government in 1973, she fled Chile. seeking sanctuary in Venuzuela. Her first novel, ‘The House of Spirits’ (1985) which arose directly out of her exile, became a worldwide best-seller and critical success.(Ed: Her ability as a writer to deal with intense human emotional issues as well as its semi-biographical nature are marks of Algol in paran with her Mercury. While her dedication to her writing is expressed by Toliman in paran with her Mercury).

Betty Williams, Belfast, United Kingdom

Peace Activist, Northern Irish peace activist who, with Mairéad Corrigan, founded the Community for Peace People in 1976 and with her shared the 1976 Nobel Prize for Peace. Williams, an office worker and wife and mother, took little part in public life until August 1976, when she witnessed an incident that moved her to speak out. [Ed: Facies in paran with her Moon]. An Irish Republican Army terrorist was shot by British troops while fleeing in a car; the car went out of control and struck several people, killing three children. Williams immediately began circulating petitions in Protestant neighbourhoods calling for an end to sectarian violence. This activity soon brought her into association with Mairéad Corrigan, an aunt of the slain children, who had been similarly galvanized into action. Together they founded the Community for Peace People to provide services for victims of the Northern Ireland conflict. In 1978 Williams and Corrigan resigned their positions of leadership in the Community and by 1980 had become estranged. In 1982 Williams married and moved to Florida, U.S.

Wyomia Tyus, Griffin, Georgia

Sprinter, American sprinter who held the world record for the 100-metre race (1964-65, 1968-72) and was the first person to win the Olympic Games gold medal in the event twice. Tyus began running in high school and at Tennessee State University (Nashville), from which she graduated in 1967. At the 1964 Olympic Games in Tokyo, she won the gold medal with a time of 11.4 seconds. In the same year, she won the 100-metre race in the Amateur Athletic Union (AAU) meet, and she won the 100-yard dash in the 1965 and 1966 AAU meets. In 1966 Tyus also won the 220-yard dash and was the AAU champion in the 60-yard dash (1965-67). In 1965 she tied the world record for the 100-yard dash, and then in 1968 she set a world record for the 100 metres at the Olympic Games in Mexico City with a time of 11.08 seconds. In those games she also placed sixth in the 200-metre race and was a member of the 4 100-metre relay team that won the gold medal. In 1973 Tyus entered professional track competitions, and later she served as a television sports commentator.

Gerry Adams, Belfast, United Kingdom

Politician, Adams is a Northen Ireland politician. He joined Sinn Fein during the 1970s in his 20s and was interned by the British because of his IRA connections. In 1978 – aged 30 – he became vice-President of Sinn Fein and later its president. He was elected to the Northern Ireland Assembly in 1982 and the following year he was also elected to the UK parliament as member for Belfast West, but he declined to take up his seat in Westminster. He was and still is to this day the chief contact with the IRA, and rose to prominence during the events of the ceasefire (1994-6). [Ed: The two stars that culminate in his chart are Mirfak with Mars, indicating that he is a warrior, a forthright person, and Algol with his Venus which is a indicator of a person who seeks social reform. The combination of these two stars shows the nature of his life]. He retained his seat in the 1997 general elections.

Pedro Almodovar, Toledo, Spain

Film Director, His films are known for their provocative treatment of sexual themes. One of his most famous films was in 1988 – Women on the Verge of a Nervous Breakdown – it won several prizes and was nominated for an Oscar for best Foreign Film. [Pedro focus on sexual themes is probably best reflected in his stars by Mars in paran with Polaris].

Mac Wilkins, Eugene, Oregon

Athlete, American world-record-holding discus thrower (1976-78). He was the first man ever to break the 70-metre barrier. Wilkins took part during his college years (1969-73) at the University of Oregon (Eugene) in all weight-throwing events–discus, hammer throw, shot put, and javelin–which earned him the nickname ‘Multiple Mac.’ In 1973 he won the Amateur Athletic Union (AAU) championship in the discus and was second in 1974 and 1975.

Wilkins set the world record in April of 1976 and a week later, in May, broke his own record three times, the farthest throw being 70.86 m (232 feet 6 inches).[Ed: Betelgeuse in paran with his Saturn as well as Saladmelek in paran to his Jupiter shows his success in the sporting arena]. In the 1976 Olympic Games at Montreal he won the gold medal. In 1980 Wilkins achieved a throw of 70.98 m (233 feet), then the second farthest ever. The U.S. boycott of the Olympic Games in Moscow that year (in protest of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan) prevented him from defending his title, but he won a silver medal in the 1984 Olympics at Los Angeles.

Bertie Ahern, Dublin, Dublin, Ireland

Politician, Ahern was a hospital account and union organiser in his youth and became a member of the Dail in 1977 at the age 26. After a series of junior post he became minister of state in 1982, minister for labour 1987 – 91. He became leader of the opposition and President of Fianna Fail in 1994 and became the Irish prime minister in 1997.

Nikolay Andrianov, Vladimir, Vladimirskaya Oblast, Russia

Gymnast, Andrianov won 15 Olympic medals (including seven gold) between 1972 and 1980. In addition he won 12 world championship medals, including the overall individual title in 1978.

Steve Waugh, Sydney, Australia

Sportsman, Stephen Waugh and his twin brother Mark are both leading Test criketers for Australia.

Steve Waugh became captian of the Australian cricket team in 1999. Steve is now the 40th Australian cricket captain and is held as a hero within Australia as he has lead the Australian cricket team on the longest running series of Test victories in the international history of the game. Steve is also know for his charity work in India with children. [Ed: In many ways his hero sporting status is symbolised by Jupiter in paran with Canopus and Hamal in paran with his Moon adds to his sporting popularity].

J.K. Rowling, Greenwitch, England

Author, Joanne Kathleen Rowling, author of the best-selling Harry Potter series of books, was born in Chipping Sodbury, near Bristol, in southwest England. Her birthday, as all true Harry Potter fans know, is July 31, the same as her famous boy-wizard hero. The family, including her parents and younger sister Di, lived in Yate and then Winterbourne, also near Bristol. Her father worked on airplane engines for Rolls Royce. When Joanne was nine, the Rowlings moved to Tutshill, near Chepstow, England, close to the border of Wales. Joanne-called Jo by her family and friends-did well in school, and in her senior year was the top girl in her class. In fact, Rowling has said that as a child she resembled Hermione Granger, Harry’s obsessively studious friend, whom she modeled after herself. Although, Rowling notes, ‘I was neither as clever or as annoying (I hope!).’

After graduating from public school with top honors in English, French, and German, Rowling went on to study French at the University of Exeter. She earned her degree in 1986 and over the next several years held a variety of secretarial jobs, including one at a publishing firm, where she had to send out rejection letters to prospective authors. What she really wanted to do, however, was write. Rowling wrote her first story, Rabbit, about a rabbit with measles, at age five or six. Later, she tried her hand at writing novels, for adults. But she never finished writing any novel before she wrote the Harry Potter books.

Rowling started writing the first Harry Potter book in 1990. The idea for Harry came to Rowling while she was stuck on a delayed train between Manchester and London. Although she left England a short time later to teach English in Portugal, Rowling continued to flesh out Harry’s story. Rowling returned to Britain in 1993, settling in Edinburgh, Scotland, to be near her sister. Divorced after a brief marriage in Portugal and now with a baby, she suffered through a period of poverty and depression while she struggled to earn a living and take care of her daughter, Jessica. It was during this difficult time that she finally completed Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone, which was renamed Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone for the U.S. edition. Following its publication in Britain in June 1997, the book quickly became a hit with children and adults alike and won numerous awards, including the British Book Awards’ Children’s Book of the Year. Rowling always envisioned the book as part of a seven-volume series-one book for every year that Harry spends at Hogwarts-and a new Harry Potter book appeared every year for the next three years. These were Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets (1998), Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban (1999), and Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire (2000).